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Also known as Hakim-Adams syndrome. Triade of Hakim - the three signs in the hydrocephalus with normal pressure. Synonyms: normal pressure hydrocephalus; normotensive hydrocephalus; progressive normotensive hydrocephaluss in adults.

A syndrome of dementia, gait apraxia, and urinary incontinence in conjunction with centricular enlargement in the absence of cerebrospinal fluid pressure disorders.

Hakim is also associated with:

•   Hakim catheter
•   Hakim reservoir
•   Hakim shunt
•   Hakim tube
•   Hakim valve


S. Hakim, R. D. Adams:
•   The special problem of symptomatic hydrocephaluss with normal
    cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Observations on cerebrospinal
    fluid hydrodynamics
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Amsterdam, 1965, 2: 307-327.

R. D. Adams,  C. M. Fisher, S. Hakim, R. G. Ojemann, W. H. Sweet:
•   Symptomatic Occult Hydrocephalus With “Normal” Cerebrospinal-
    Fluid Pressure. A Treatable Syndrome
    The New England Journal of Medicine, Boston, 1965, 273: 117-126.

C. A. Hakim, R. Hakim, S. Hakim:
•   Normal-pressure hydrocephalus.
    Neurosurgery Clinics of North America, Philadelphia, 2001, 12 (4): 761-763.

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