- A dictionary of medical eponyms

Lhermitte's hallucinosis

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In 1922 Jean Lhermitte described a 72 year-old female who experienced bizarre visual hallucinations associated with clinical signs suggesting focal midbrain and pontine involvement. Gilbert Horrax (1887-1957) in 1923 presented the literature to date, beginning with an 1879 report by Karl Friedrich Otto Westphal (1833-1890) and including cases from individuals such as John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911. Jean Étienne Dominique Esquirol (1772-1840) described the phenomenon in 1837. In 1924 Ludo van Bogaert (1897-1989) described similar features in a 59-year-old female and proposed to use the term "l'hallucinose pédonculaire" (peduncular hallucinosis) to describe the phenomenon.


  • J. E. D. Esquirol:
    Les malades mentales. 1837. Reprinted in 1965: Mental Maladies. NY: Hafner Press.
  • J. Lhermitte:
    Syndrome de la calotte pédonculaire. Les troubles psychosensoriels dans les lesions du mesencepahle.
    Revue Neurologique, 1922, 38: 1359-1365.
  • J. Lhermitte:
    L'encéphalite léthargique. 1922.
  • G. Horrax:
    Visual hallucinations as a cerebral localizing phenomenon, with especial reference to their occurrence in tumors of the temporal lobe.
    Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1923, 19: 532-547.
  • L. van Bogaert:
    Syndrome inferieur du noyau rouge, troubles psychosensoriels d'origine mesocephalique. Revue neurologique, 1924, 40: 417-423.
  • L. van Bogaert:
    L'hallucinose pédonculaire. Revue neurologique, 1927, 47: 608-617.
  • Alfred Gordon (1874-1953):
    Hallucinosis as a clinical entity.
    Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1929, 21: 217-218.
  • J. Lhermitte:
    L'hallucinose pédonculaire. L'Encephale, Paris, 1932, 27: 422-435.
  • G. Horrax and Tracy Jackson Putnam (1894-1975):
    Distortion of the visual fields in cases of brain tumor: The field defects and hallucinations produced by tumors of the occipital lobe. Brain, 1932, 55: 499-523.
  • Georges de Morsier (1894-1982):
    Pathogénie de l'hallucinose pédonculaire, A propos d'un nouveau cas.
    Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift, 1936, 27, 645-646.
  • J. Lhermitte & G. Delthil et Garnier:
    Syndrome contro-lateral du noyau rouge avec hallucinations visuelles et auditives.
    Revue Neurologique, 1938, 70: 623-628.
  • J. Lhermitte:
    Les fondements anatomo-physiologiques de certaines hallucinations visuelles.
    Confinia Neurologica, 1949, 9: 43-57.
  • J. Lhermitte:
    Visual hallucination of the self. British Medical Journal, 1951, 1: 431-434.
  • J. Lhermitte:
    Les hallucinations: clinique et physiopathologie. Paris: Doin, 1951.
  • Anthony H. Risser and Frank C. Powell:
    Lhermitte's Peduncular Hallucinosis - An historical perspective.
    Paper presented at the 45th Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology. New York, 1993.

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