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MacCallan's classification of trachoma

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A grading system used to standardize diagnosis in field surveys and research studies.

The several variants of the MacCallan trachoma classification may have been derived from a description of the four stages of trachoma by Aetius of Amida (527-565). Aetius was a physician at the court of emperor Justinian I in Constaninople.

We thank William Charles Caccamise Sr, MD, for information submitted.


  • Ophthalmic conditions in the government schools in Egypt and their amelioration.
    With his classification. The Ophthalmoscope, 1908, 6: 856-863, 947-952.
  • Trachoma and Its Complications in Egypt.
    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1913.
  • Causes of blindness in Egypt.
    American Journal of Ophthalmology, New York, 1919, 2: 736-737.
  • The epidemiology of trachoma.
    The British Journal of Ophthalmology, London, 1931, 15: 369-411.
  • Trachoma in the British Colonial Empire. Its relation to blindness: the existing means of relief: means of prophylaxis.
    The British Journal of Ophthalmology, 1934, 18: 626–45.
  • Trachoma. London, Butterworth, 1936. 225 pages.
    Supersedes his 1913 publication on trachoma in Egypt. Much information throughout on Egypt, including social conditions.
  • D. F. Woodhouse:
    Some problems of trachoma diagnosis. Transactions of the Ophthalmological Societies of the United Kingdom, 1973, 93: 635-640.
  • Anthony W. Solomon, Rosanna W. Peeling, Allen Foster, and David C. W. Mabey:
    Diagnosis and Assessment of Trachoma.
    Clinical Microbiology Reviews, October 2004, 17 (4): 982-1011.
  • E. F. King:
    Arthur Fergusom MacCallan.
    The British Journal of Ophthalmology, May 1955, 39 (5): 319-320.
  • William Charles Caccamise Sr, MD:
    Trachoma: A Brief Discussion Accompanied By Photographs Of Its Ocular Manifestations.
    April 23, 2005. http://www.eyeorbit.org/article.php?story=20050423114608232&mode=print
    "In 1908, Arthur Ferguson MacCallan, a British ophthalmologist with considerable experience in Egypt - a stronghold of trachoma - presented his classification of trachoma. For many, the MacCallan Classification remains the standard for classifying the various stages of trachoma."

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