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Kausch-Whipple operation

Related people

Radical pancreatoduodenectomy for cancer of pancreas. Excision of the head of the pancreas, the gallbladder, part of the common bile duct, the duodenum, and sometimes a portion of the stomach, with gastrojejunostomy, choledochojejunostomy, and pancreaticojejunostomy.

In 1898, Alessandro Codivilla (1861-1912) performed the first pancreatic head resection. In 1912, Walther Kausch (1867-1928) in Germany reported the first successful excision of the duodenum and a portion of the pancreas in two stages for ampullary cancer. Kausch performed this operation first on August 21, 1909. His patient was Ernst G. who had been diagnosed with carcinoma of the papilla seven weeks earlier. The operation took four hours. The first successful one-stage pancreaticoduodenectomy, for carcinoma of the ampulla was performed in 1914 by Georg Hirschel (born 1875) in Heidelberg. Hirschel's patient experienced relief from the jaundice but died a year after the operation. In 1918, Lester Reynold Dragstedt (1893-1975) demonstrated the feasibility of total duodenectomy in dogs and pigs. In 1922, Tenani in Italy performed a successful two-stage partial pancreaticoduodenectomy

Whipple performed his operation 25 years after Kausch, on August 21, 1934. Kausch's patient survived for 9 months, Whipple's for 8 months. They died from cholecystoenterostomy and cholecystogastrostomy, respectively.


  • A. Codivilla:
    Rendiconto statistico della sezione chirurgica dell'ospedale di Imola. 1898.
  • W. Kausch:
    Die Resektiún des mittieren Duodenums-eine typische Operation. Vorläufige Mitteilung.
    Zentralblatt für Chirurgie, Leipzig, 1909, 39: 1350.
  • W. Kausch:
    Das Carcinom der Papilla duodeni und seine radikale Entfernung.
    Beiträge zur klinischen Chirurgie, Tübingen, 1912, 78: 439-486.
  • G. Hirschel:
    Die Resektion des Duodenums mit der Papille wegen Karzinoms.
    Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 1914, 61: 1728.
  • O. Tenani:
    Contributo alla Chirurgia della papilla di Vater. Policlínico, 1922, 29: .291
  • A. O. Whipple, W. B. Parsons, C. R.Mullins:
    Treatment of carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.
    Annals of Surgery, Philadelphia, 1935, 102: 763-779.
  • J. H. Peters, L. C. carey:
    Historical review of pancreaticoduodenectomy.
    American Journal of Surgery, New York, 1991, 161: 219-225.
  • A. Bassin, P. O'Leary:
    The first report of a successful pancreaticoduodenectomy.
    The American Surgeon, Atlanta, 1995, 61: 845-846.
  • L. Jones, C. Russell, F. Mosca, U. Boggi, R. Sutton, J. Slavin, M. Hartleym, J. P. Neoptolemos:
    Standard Kausch-Whipple Pancreatoduodenectomy. Digestive Surgery, 1999, 16: 297-304.

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