- A dictionary of medical eponyms

Panayiotopoulos syndrome

Related people

Early onset benign childhood seizures with occipital spikes. The cardinal features of Panayiotopoulos syndrome are infrequent (often single), partial seizures with an unusual constellation of ictal symptoms that rarely occur in other epilepsies. The seizure consists of a combination of autonomic and behavioral disturbances, vomiting, deviation of the eyes, often with impairment of consciousness that usually progress to convulsions. All of these symptoms may occur together in more than half of the seizures. That one or more of them may predominate or be absent is common. Well-documented current evidence indicates that descriptive terms referring to “occipital epilepsy” or “epilepsy with occipital spikes or occipital paroxysms” are incorrect and should be discouraged

The names "Panayiotopoulos syndrome" or "Panayiotopoulos type of benign childhood occipital epilepsy" were proposed for this syndrome mainly by Fejerman and his associates in 1996, Caraballo et al in 1997, 1998, 1999; and Ahmed Sharoqi et al 1997.


  • Fred A. Gibbs and Erna L. Gibbs:
    Atlas of electroencephalography.
    Epilepsy, volume 2, 1952: 214-290. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1952.
    Gibbs & Gibbs described occipital spikes and their evolution.
  • C. P. Panayiotopoulos:
    Basilar migraine? Seizures, and severe epileptic EEG abnormalities.
    Neurology 1980, 30:1122-125.
  • C. P. Panayiotopoulos:
    Inhibitory effect of central vision on occipital lobe seizures.
    Neurology, 1981, 31:330-333.
  • C. P. Panayiotopoulos:
    Difficulties in differentiating migraine and epilepsy based on clinical and EEG findings. In: F. Andermann and E. Lugaresi, editors. Migraine and epilepsy. Boston: Butterworth, 1987: 47-81
  • C. P. Panayiotopoulos:
    Vomiting as an ictal manifestation of epileptic seizures and syndromes.
    Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, London, 1988, 51: 1448-1451.
  • C. P. Panayiotopoulos:
    Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms: a 15-year prospective study.
    Annals of Neurology, 1989, 26: 51-56.
  • C. P. Panayiotopoulos:
    Benign nocturnal childhood occipital epilepsy: a new syndrome with nocturnal seizures, tonic deviation of the eyes, and vomiting.
    Journal of Child Neurology, 1989, 4: 43-49.
  • C. P. Panayiotopoulos:
    Benign childhood partial epilepsies: benign childhood seizure susceptibility syndromes [editorial].
    Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, London, 1993, 56: 2-5.
  • N Fejerman:
    Atypical evolutions of benign partial epilepsies in children.
    International Pediatrics, 1996, 11: 351-356.
  • Ahmed Sharoqi I, A. Parker, A. Agathonikou:
    Early onset benign childhood occipital seizures (Panayiotopoulos' syndrome).
    Epilepsia, 1997, 38, supplement 3: 223.
  • R. H. Caraballo, R. O. Cerosimo, C. S. Medina, S. Tenembaum, N. Fejerman:
    Epilepsias parciales idiopaticas con paroxysmos occipitales.
    Revista de neurologia, 1997, 25:1052-1058.
  • R. H. Caraballo, R. O. Cerosimo, N. Fejerman:
    Idiopathic partial epilepsies with rolandic and occipital spikes appearing in the same children. Journal of Epilepsy, New York, 1998, 11:261-264.
  • R. H. Caraballo, R. O. Cerosimo, N. Fejerman:
    Idiopathic partial occipital epilepsy of early onset.
    Epilepsia, 1999, 40, supplement 2: 225.
  • C. P. Panayiotopoulos, P. Chrysostomos:
    Panayiotopoulos syndrome: A common and benign childhood epileptic syndrome.
    London: John Libbey & Company, 2002.
We thank Sagi Cooper and Patrick Jucker-Kupper for information submitted.

What is an eponym?

An eponym is a word derived from the name of a person, whether real or fictional. A medical eponym is thus any word related to medicine, whose name is derived from a person.

What is Whonamedit?

Whonamedit.com is a biographical dictionary of medical eponyms. It is our ambition to present a complete survey of all medical phenomena named for a person, with a biography of that person.


Whonamedit? does not give medical advice.
This survey of medical eponyms and the persons behind them is meant as a general interest site only. No information found here must under any circumstances be used for medical purposes, diagnostically, therapeutically or otherwise. If you, or anybody close to you, is affected, or believe to be affected, by any condition mentioned here: see a doctor.