A crunching, rasping sound, synchronous with heartbeat, heard over the precordium and sometimes at a distance from the chest in spontaneous mediastinal emphysema.
- R. T. H. Laënnec:
De l'auscultation médiate, ou traité du diagnostic des maladies des poumons et du coeur, fondé principalement sur ce nouveau moyen d’exploration.
Paris, 1831. Published by Mériadec Laënnec.
- F. von Müller:
Taschenbuch der medizinisch-klinischen Dagnostik. With Otto Seifert (1853-1933).
Wiesbaden 1886. 28th edition 1931. The 72nd and completely revised edition appeared in 2000, published by Springer Verlag.
- G. von Bergmann:
Die Erkrankungen des Mediastinum. In: G. von Bergmann, publisher: Handbuch der inneren Medizin, Volume 2, 1. Berlin : Springer, 1930.
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