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Parinaud-Koerber-Salus-Elschnig syndrome

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This dorsal midbrain syndrome is a supranuclear palsy of vertical conjugate movement, most often upwards, caused by lesions of the aqueduct of Sylvius. Occasionally there is paralysis of both upward and downward movement, and rarely of downward movement alone. Other symoptoms and signs include headaches, dizziness, vertigo, ataxia, hemitremor; possible, hemiparesis, nystagmus retractorius. Pupils usually normal in size, but poor reaction to light and near vision. The defect is sometimes congenital.


  • H. Parinaud:
    Paralysie des mouvements associés des yeux.
    Archives de neurologie, Paris, 1883, 5: 145-172.
  • H. Koerber:
    Über drei Fälle von Retraktionsbewegung des Bulbus (Nystagmus retractorius).
    Ophthalmologische Klinik, Stuttgart, 1903, 7: 65.
  • R. Salus:
    Über erworbene Retraktionsbewegungen der Augen.
    Archiv für Augenheilkunde, 1911, 68: 61-76.
  • A. Elschnig:
    Nystagmus retractorius, ein cerebrales Herdsymptom.
    Medizinische Klinik, München, 1933, 29: 1134.

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