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Paul Clemens von Baumgarten

Born  1848
Died  1928

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German pathologist, born August 28, 1848, Dresden; died 1928, Tübingen.

Biography of Paul Clemens von Baumgarten

Paul Clemens von Baumgarten, the son of a physician, was a pupil of Christian Wilhelm Braune (1831-1892) and Ernst Leberecht Wagner (1829-1888) in Leipzig, and Ernst Neumann (1834-1918) in Königsberg. He received his doctorate in Leipzig on August 22, 1873. That year he became an assistant at the anatomical institute in Leipzig under Wilhelm His (1831-1904) and Wilhelm Braune, from 1874 to 1889 prosector of the pathological-anatomical institute in Königsberg with Ernst Neumann. He became Privatdozent of pathological anatomy at the University of Königsberg in 1877, was appointed extraordinary professor of the same discipline in 1881, and was examinator for hygiene at that university from 1888. In 1889 he was called to the University of Tübingen as full professor of pathological anatomy and general pathology, while also representing the subject of bacteriology. He remained here for the rest of his career.

Baumgarten described the tubercle bacillus in 1882, the same year as Koch - and independent of him. Based on numerous experimental investigations he refuted Metchnikoff’s theory of phagocytes, and he established that neither Robert Koch’s new or old method had any curative effect on tubercles inoculated into rabbits or guinea pigs. His textbook of pathological mucology is the first attempt to develop the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and pathological histology based on the modern doctrine of pathogenous microorganisms.

From 1885 to 1917 Baumgarten published the Jahresberichte über die Fortschritte in der Lehre von den pathogenen Organismen, and from 1889 occasioned the publication of 9 volumes of: Arbeiten auf dem Gebiete der pathogenen Anatomie und Bakteriologie.


  • Über das Verhalten der Tuberkelbazillen an der Eingangspforte der Infektion.
    Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, 1905, 42: 1329-1334.
  • Die sogenannte Organisation des Thrombus.
    Leipzig, 1877.
  • Entdeckung des spezifischen Tuberkelbazillus.
    1882: Simultaneously with and independent of Robert Koch!
  • Über Tuberkel und Tuberkulose. Berlin, 1885.
    In this work he elucidates the until then unsolved problem of the histogenesis of tuberculous processes.
  • Über latente Tuberkulose.
    [Volkmann's] Sammlung klinisher Vorträge, Leipzig, Nr 218. Leipzig 1882.
  • Über die Wege der tuberkulösen Infektionen.
    Zeitschrift für klinische Medizin, Berlin, 1883, 6: 61.
  • Zur Kritik der Metschnikoff'schen Phagocytentheorie.
    Zeitschrift für klinische Medizin, Berlin, XV, 1888.
  • Über die Einwirkung des Koch'schen Mittels auf die Impftuberkulose der Kaninchen. Virchow Festschrift, vol. III, Berlin.
  • Über den Heilwert des neuen Koch'schen Tuberkulin (TR) nach Experimenten and tuberkulös infizierten Kaninchen und Meerschweinchen.
    Centralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde und Infektionskrankheiten, 1898.
  • Lehrbuch der pathologischen Mykologie. Vorlesungen.
    2 volumes. Braunschweig, 1888-1890; 2nd edition, 1911.
  • Über die Nabelvene des Menschen und ihre Bedeutung für die Cirkulationsstörung bei Lebercirrhose. Braunschweig, 1891.
  • Zur Kritik der Lehre von den Infektionswegen der menschlichen Tuberkulose.
    Virchows Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin, Berlin 1925, 254: 662.
  • Entzündung, Thrombose, Embolie und Metastase im Lichte neurer Forschung.
    Jahresberichte über die Fortschritte in der Lehre von den pathogenen Organismen. Published by himself 1885-1917.
  • Arbeiten auf dem Gebite der pathologischen Anatomie und Bakteriologie.
    9 volumes published after 1889.

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