Biography of Julius Arnold
Julius Arnold Arnold was the son of Friedrich Arnold (1803-1890). He studied in Heidelberg, Prague, Vienna, and Berlin, a pupil of Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902), Paul Friedrich, Adalbert Duchek (1824-1882), C. O. Werner, and his father. On November 14, 1859, at the age of 24 years, he was conferred doctor of medicine.
On April 13, 1866, he was appointed professor of pathological anatomy as well as director of the institute of pathology at the University of Heidelberg. His work here was to become of great importance to the development of pathological anatomy, and he worked particularly to build a closer cooperation between pathologists and clinics.
Up to his last publication at the age of 70 on the importance of fatty metabolism on the building up of milk and colostrum, Arnold produced 120 articles in the fields of histology and pathological anatomy.
Three years after Chiari's original publication Arnold described the pathological findings in an infant dying shortly after delivery. The child had a large herniation of the spinal cord thoracolumbaly. He also described the brainstem as underdeveloped with a downward draw of some of the lower parts of the cerebellum and the 4th ventricle in the spinal canal. Arnold reasoned that this was a case of monogerminal terathomatous deformity. He was, though, not able to explain the deformity of the brainstem.
Two of Arnold's students, Ernst Schwalbe (1871-1920) and Gredig, in 1907 published a work in which they emphasised the connection between herniation of the spinal cord and the deformity of the posterior skull cave, and used the term "Arnoldsche und Chiarische Missbildung". They described four infants with herniation of the spinal cord which all had hypoplasia of the cerebellum, pons localised at the superior part of the spinal canal, as well as a break of the medulla at its passing into the brainstem. These students of Arnold's did not, however, refer to Cleland's previous work, and the conjoint eponym of Arnold-Chiari's deformity became the current term for changes of the brainstem in subsequent works. Cleland's original description was forgotten.
Arnolds written work concerns a wide field of medicine, as is evident from this small selection of his work:
- Über die Bindehaut der Hornhaut und des Greisbogen.
Doctoral thesis. Heidelberg, 1860.
- Ueber die Endigung der Nerven in der Bindehaut des Augapfels.
Virchows] Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie, und für klinische Medizin, Berlin, 1862, volume XXIV?
- Das Gewebe der organischen Muskeln.
22 pages. Leipzig, Wilhjelm Engelmann, 1869.
- Das glatte Muskelgewebe. Lepizig 1870.
- Anatomische Beiträge zur der Lehre von den Schusswunden.
- Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschicte des Auges.
- Linse und Strahlenplättchen.
In E. T. Saemisch and A. Graefe: Handbuch der gesammten Augenheilkunde.
7 volumes, Leipzig 1874-1880.
- Untersuchungen über Staubinhalation und Staubmetastase.
- Über das Vorkommen heller Muskeln beim Menschen.
Festschrift des Naturhistorisch-medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg, 1886.
- Über den Kampf des menschlichen Körpers mit den Bakterien.
Prorectoral address, Heidelberg, 1888.
- Myelocyste, Transposition von Gewebskeimen und Sympodie.
Beiträge zur pathologischen Anatomie und zur allgemeinen Pathologie, 1894, 16: 1-28.
- Über Plasmastrukturen und ihre funktionelle Bedeutung.