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Campbell-Howell method

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A procedure for determining the content of carbon dioxide (tension) in the mixed venous tissue in patients with diseases of the lungs. Pure oxygen is respired into a Douglas’ bag repeatedly, with a certain frequency, where after the carbon dioxide tension of the contents of the sac will be the same as in the mixed venous blood.


  • E. J. Moran Campbell:
    The Respiratory Muscles and the Mechanics of Breathing. 1958.
  • Gde L. White:
    The Campbell-Howell modified Haldane apparatus as applied to the measurement of percentage CO2 of gas cylinders required for the Astrup micro-equipment.
    South African Medical Journal, Cape Town, June 27, 1970, 44 (26): 763-765.

  • W. Droszcz:
    [Comparison of the indirect Campbell-Howell method with the direct Riley method in determining partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood] [Article in Polish]
    Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej, 1965, 35 (1): 25-29.

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