- A dictionary of medical eponyms

Fraenkel-Weichselbaum diplococcus

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Gram positive, non-motile, facultative anaerobic growing lancet-shaped diplococci. They cause pneumonia and sometimes also sepsis, peritonitis or meningitis.

Most pneumonia is caused by a single group of bacteria, the pneumococci. Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, was first isolated by Louis Pasteur in 1881 from the saliva of a patient with rabies It was confused with other causes of pneumonia until the invention of the Gram stain in 1884. George Miller Sternberg (1838-1915) in 1881, simultaneously with Louis Pasteur, announced the discovery of the pneumococcus. In 1886 Albert Frankel showed definitively that the organism Pasteur and Sternberg had found caused pneumonia.


  • Joseph Marie Jules Parrot (1829-1883):
    L’organisme microscopique trouvé par M. Pasteur dans la maladie nouvelle provoquée par la salive d’un enfant mort de la rage.
    Bulletin de l’Académie de médecine, Paris, 1881, 2 sér. 10: 379.
    Probably the earliest record of pneumococcus.
  • Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), Charles Chamberland, Emile Roux, (1853-1933), Louis Thuillier (1856-1883):
    Sur la rage.
    Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences, Paris, 1881, 92: 1259-1260.
  • George Miller Sternberg:
    A fatal form of septicaemia in the rabbit, produced by the subcutaneous injection of human saliva. Johns Hopkins University. Studies from the biological laboratory, 1882, 2 (2): 183-200.
  • A. Fränkel:
    Über die genuine Pneumonie.
    Verhandlungen des III. Congresses für Innere Medizin. Wiesbaden, 1884, 3: 17-31.
  • A. Fränkel:
    Bakteriologische Mitteilungen. Zeitschrift für klinische Medizin, 1886, 10: 401-461.
  • A. Fränkel:
    Die Mikrococcen der Pneumonie.
    Zeitschrift für klinische Medicin, Berlin, 1886, 10: 426-449.
    Zeitschrift für klinische Medicin, Berlin, 1886, 11: 437-458.
  • A. Weichselbaum:
    Über die Ätiologie der acuten Lungen- und Rippenfellentzündungen.
    Wiener Medizinische Jahrbücher, (Alte Folge), 1886; 82: 483-554.
  • A. Weichselbaum:
    Über seltenere Localisationen des pneumonischen Virus (Diplococcus pneumoniae).
    Wiener klinischer Wochenschrift, 1888, 1: 573-575, 595-597, 620-622, 642-643, 659-661.

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