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Dukes' classification (Cuthbert Esquire Dukes)

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A classification or staging system for colorectal cancer that gives doctors a guide to the risk of the cancer coming back or spreading to other parts of the body. The original Dukes classification of 1932 described the staging of rectal carcinoma only but can also be applied to carcinomas of the colon. It is divided into three simple stages, A to C. Stage D has been added later. Several modified versions exist.


  • C. E. Dukes:
    The classification of cancer of the rectum.
    The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, London, 1932, 35: 323-32.
  • C. E. Dukes:
    The surgical pathology of rectal cancer.
    Journal of Clinical Pathology, London, 1949, 2: 95.
  • C. E. Dukes, H. J. R. Bussey:
    The spread of rectal cancer and its effect on prognosis.
    The British Journal of Cancer, Edinburgh, 1958; 12: 309-320.

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