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Kozhevnikov's syndrome I

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A mild continuous epilepsia characterized by almost continuous, rhythmic muscular contractions affecting a limited part of the body for a period of hours, days, or even years. The myoclonic jerks have a frequency of about 1 to 2 per second and may persist during sleep.

This description was submitted by Zoran Bojanic, M.D., Serbia.

It was described in 1894 independently by the German neurologist Ludwig Bruns (1858-1916) and Kozhevnikov. An earlier report was made by Karl Friedrich Otto Westphal (1833-1890) in 1868.

When Kozhevnikov reported the condition to the Moscow Society of Neurology, the famous paediatrician Nil Feodorovich Filatov (1847-1902) commented that this was an observation ranking in importance with that made by Hughlings Jackson on another seizure pattern, cortical epilepsy, known as Jackson's epilepsy.


  • K. F. O. Westphal:
    Ueber eine Art paradoxer Muskelcontraction. 1868. This reference is uncertain.
  • A. Y. Kozhevnikov:
    Osobaya forma kortikalnoi epilepsie.
    Tr obsn nevropat psichiatr Mosk, 1893/94, 30. Osobyi vid kortical’noi épilepsii.
    Medisinskoe Obozrainie, ejemaisjachuni journal, Moscow, 1894, 42: 97-118. Eine besondere Form von corticaler Epilepsie.
    Neurologisches Centralblatt, Leipzig, 1895, 14: 47-48. Osobyi vid kortical’noi épilepsii. Moscow, 1952.
  • L. Bruns, in:
    Neurologisches Centralblatt, Leipzig, volume 13, 1894.

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