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Westphal-Pilcz sign

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Constriction of both pupils when an effort is made to close eyelids forcibly held apart. This type of pupillary reaction has been referred to as a syndrome inasmuch as the pupillary behaviour was originally considered to be characteristic of a neurosis or psychosis. Described by Galassi in 1887.


  • S. Galassi:
    Sopra un singolare fenomeno pupillare.
    Bullettino della Società Lancisiana degli Ospedali di Roma, 1887, 7: 173-177.
  • A. K. O. Westphal:
    Über ein bisher nicht beschriebenes Pupillephänomen.
    Neurologisches Zentralblatt, Leipzig, 1899, 18: 161-164.
    Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 1913, 38: 1769.
  • J. Piltz:
    In: Neurologisches Zentralblatt, Leipzig, 1899, 18: 248. Weitere Mitteilungen über die beim energischen Lidschluss stattfindende Pupillenveränderung.
    Neurologisches Zentralblatt, Leipzig, 1900, 19: 837-848. Das vagotonische Pupillenphänomen, von Somogui.
    Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 1913, NR 33.
    Neurologisches Zentralblatt, Leipzig, 1914, 33: 1124.

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