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A procedure using cowpox matter to prevent smallpox.
A procedure using cowpox matter to prevent smallpox.
BibliographyThe following bibliography is but a small selection of the works on the topic:
- Rhazes (Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi):
De variolis et morbillis commentarius. About AD 910. London, G Bowyer; 1766.
- Emmanouel Timonis:
Historia variolarum quae per incisionem exicantur.
Constantinople, 1713. An account, or history, of the procuring of the smallpox by incision or inoculation, as it has for some time been practised at Constantinople.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 1714-1716, 29: 72-82. Tractatus de nova variolas per transmutationem excitanti methodo. Leiden, 1721.
- Jakovos Pylarinos / Giacomo Pilarino:
Nova et tuta Variolas excitandi per transplantationem methodus; nuper inventa et in usum tracta, qua rite per acta immuniaa in posterum praesenvatur ab hujus modi contagio corpora.
“New and safe method to excite smallpox by inoculation, just invented and put into use, performed routinely, by which the bodies acquire immunity against this infection in later years." Nova et tuta variolas excitandi per transplantationem methodus, nuper inventa et in usum tracta.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 1714-1716, 29: 393-399.
- James Jurin:
A letter . . . containing, a comparison between the mortality of the natural small pox, and that given by inoculation.
London, W. J. Innys, 1723.
One of the earliest applications of statistics to a particular socio-medical problem.
- James Kilpatrick, American physician:
An essay on inoculation, occasioned by the smallpox being brought into South Carolina in the year 1738.
- Unknown author:
Recueil de Pièces Concernant l'inoculation de la petite Vérole et propres à en prouver la securité et l'utilité. Paris: Desaint & Saillant, 1756.
A detailed report of the history of vaccination before Jenner and on many remarkable pioneers often overlooked in literature.
- William Douglass, M.D., 1691-1752:
A digression concerning the small-pox.
In: A summary, historical, and political, of the first planting, progressive improvements, and present state of the British settlements in North-America.
Printed in Boston. Reprinted for R. Baldwin, London, 1775 (volume II, 408). 2 volumes.
Douglass documents from personal experience some of the early experiments in England and in America with the Turkish ("Circassian") method of inoculation against smallpox. Douglass, a Scotsman and probably an Edinburgh graduate, is best known as the first physician to describe scarlet-fever. He settled in Boston in 1718, and during the smallpox epidemic there in 1721 became involved in controversy with "a credulous vain Preacher, Mather Jr.," to whom Douglass had leant the original description of inoculation from the Philosophical Transactions and whom he here castigates as trying to steal from Douglass himself "the imaginary honour" for this "new fangled notion." This account dates from 1751.
- Lady Mary Wortley Montagu:
Letters from the Levant, during the Embassy to Constaninople 1716-1718.
First printed in 1763 from an unauthorized copy. London: Joseph Rickerby, 1838.
Lady Mary's literary reputation chiefly rests on 52 superb Turkish embassy letters, which she wrote after her return as the ambassador's wife in Constantinople, using her actual letters and journals as source material. Later editions of her letters, sanctioned by her family, added selections from her personal letters together with most of her poetry. The Complete Letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, 3 vol. (ed. Robert Halsband, 1965-67), was the first full edition of Lady Mary's letters.
- Johann Andreas Murray:
Fata insitionis variolarum in Suecia.
Doctoral dissertation, Göttingen, 1765. Historia variolarum insitionis in suecia. Göttingen?, 1767.
- M. Power:
Précis historique de la nouvelle méthode d’inoculer la petite vérole avec une exposition abrégé de cette méthode. Ouvrage destiné à montrer comment elle s’est établie en Angleterre . . . . . et qu’elle est due à M. Sutton. 1769.
- M. de Villiers:
Suite des pièces en faveur de la méthode suttonienne d’inoculation pratiquée depuis peu à Paris par M. Worlack, médecin anglais et beau-père du célèbre M. Daniel Sutton. 1774. Manuel secret et analyse des remèdes de M. Sutton pour l’inoculation de la petite vérole.
Paris, 1774. German translation, Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1776.
- J. J. Gardane:
Le secret des Suttons dévoilé ou l’inoculation mise à la portée de tout le monde. 1774.
- George Pearson:
An inquiry concerning the history of the cow-pock, principally with a view to supersede and extinguish the small-pox.
London, 1798; German translation by J. F. Kuettlinger. An examination of the report of the committee of the House of Commons on the claims of remuneration for the vaccine pock inoculation.
London, 1802. Report on the cow-pock inoculation during the years 1800, 1801 and 1802.
London, 1803. A paper containing the results of elevn years practice of the original Vaccine Pock Institution. London, 1811.
- William Woodville, M.D., 1752-1805:
The history of the inoculation of the small-pox in Great Briatin.
London, 1796. Reports of a series of inoculations for the variolae vaccinae; with remarks and observations on this disease, considered as a substitute for the small-pox.
London: James Philips, 1799. French translation, Paris, 1800; German, Breslau 1800.
Soon after the publication of Jenner's case-studies, William Woodville carried out much more extensive trials of vaccination among patients in London. Woodville was Director of London Smallpox and Inoculation Hospital, and he kept detailed records on several thousand patients. Woodville, like Jenner himself, had close ties to Sir Joseph Banks, the influential long-time president of the Royal Society, and his support for vaccination was of great importance to its acceptance. As the cases shown here indicate, however, many of Woodville's inoculees developed the characteristic pustules across the body of genuine smallpox, and the "vaccine" used for his trials may in fact have been contaminated. Observations on the cow-pox. London, 1800.
- Edward Jenner:
An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolæ Vaccinæ, a Disease Discovered in Some of the Western Counties of England, Particularly Gloucestershire, and Known by the Name of the Cow Pox.
London, S. Low, 1798, 2nd edition, London, Sampson Low, 1800; 3rd edition, London, 1801.
By 1803 it had been translated into numerous languages.
Jenner had this book printed at his own expense, commissioning four hand-coloured plates, depicting the cowpox pustule, from the artists William Skelton and Edward Pearce. These were a critical component of the book’s success, and a major factor in the scientific acceptance of Jenner’s work.
The work describes 23 successful vaccinations. In Case IV – page 13 - of the Inquiry Jenner describes a kind of reaction now known as anaphylaxis - an allergic hypersensitivity reaction of the body to a foreign protein or drug. German title: Untersuchung über die Ursachen und Wirkungen der Kuhpocken. The original title words of Jenner's manuscript, submitted to (and rejected by) the Royal Society of London, was: "An Inquiry into the natural History of a Disease known in Glostershire by the name of the Cow-pox."
- Samuel L. Mitchill, 1764-1831, ed:
The Medical Repository of original essays and intelligence relative to physic, surgery, chemistry and natural history.
New series, volume 1. New York: John Forbes, 1813.
An early American report on the inroads that vaccination rapidly made on disease rates in London, even with poorly-controlled vaccine sources.
- John Baron M.D., 1786-1822:
The Life of Edward Jenner, MD.
2 volumes. London: Henry Colburn, 1827.
The first major biography of Jenner by a friend and associate of many years and still the main source of information on the medical scientist. Written in the rather stilted style of early nineteenth century England, this two-volume work contains many of the letters by and to Jenner that were to form the basis of later studies of the man and his discoveries.
- John Baron, M.D., 1786-1822:
The Life of Edward Jenner, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.
London: Henry Colburn, 1838. 2 volumes.
- Christian Charles Schieferdecker, M.D.
Dr. C. G. G. Nittinger's Evils of Vaccination.
Philadelphia: the editor, 1856.
Because of the lack of clear scientific explanation of its effects, the frequent side-effects, and contaminated vaccines, vaccination itself remained controversial throughout the nineteenth century. It certainly carried risks for the infants being vaccinated, and this volume, playing on parental fears, argued, inter alia, that vaccination was nonsensical, unscientific, criminal, and even sinful. Shown here is a satiric vignette of a protective mother's discussion with the family doctor.
- Charles Creighton:
Jenner and Vaccination.
London, 1889. (an anti-vaccination critique).
- E.M. Crookshank:
History and Pathology of Vaccination.
2 vols, London, 1889. (a criticism by another anti-vaccinationist).
- Louis H. Roddis:
Edward Jenner and Discovery of Smallpox Vaccination.
Menasha, Wis.: George Banta Publishing Co., 1930.
A small but informative offering with an introductory chapter on the history of smallpox. Written in a precise style, this work outlines Jenner's early fife, his medical career, his discovery of vaccination, the honours he received, and the final years of his life. A fine introduction to Jenner, the man and the physician.
- F. Dawtrey Drewitt:
The Life of Edward Jenner. 2nd ed. (1933).
- William R. A. LeFanu:
Bio-Bibliography of Edward Jenner, 1749-1823.
London: Harvey and Blythe, 1951.
This offering by the world authority on Edward Jenner, the librarian of the Royal College of Surgeons, discusses all publications by Jenner and, in addition, fists all letters known at the time by or to him in manuscript or printed form.
- R. Halsbrand:
New light on Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's contribution to inoculation.
Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Oxford, 1953, 8: 390-405.
- Lester S. King:
The Medical World of the Eighteenth Century.
(1958, reissued 1971). Exploring the general medical background of the 18th century.
- Dorothy Fisk:
Dr. Jenner of Berkeley. London: Heinemann, 1959.
This work by a British author is well-written and informative but is hampered by a somewhat ponderous style. There is, however, much information on Jenner's life that would be useful to the general reading public.
- Edward F. Dolan, Jr.:
Jenner and the Miracle of Vaccine.
New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1960.
A readable, well-written work done in the style of a novel. Accurate details of Jenner's life have been garnered from primary and secondary sources.
- Irmengarde Eberle:
Edward Jenner and Smallpox Vaccination.
New York: Franklin Watts, 1962.
This book provides an easily readable introduction to Jenner's life and times. Lacks the detail of later, more scholarly works but is aimed at a younger audience.
- Derrick Baxby:
Jenner's Smallpox Vaccine.
London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1981.
In this book Baxby, the senior lecturer in medical microbiology at the University of Liverpool, explores the biology of the virus in a clearly written fashion.
- R. Rullière:
Histoire de la médecine. Paris: Masson, 1981.
- Paul. Saunders:
Edward Jenner: The Cheltenham Years, 1795-1823.
Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1982.
This well-documented chronicle of Jenner's vaccination campaign provides insights into the opposition and mistrust that Jenner met regarding vaccination. Fills the chronological gap that exists in Baron's The Life of Edward Jenner, M. D., during the height of his fame in Cheltenham and gives a new insight into Jenner's circle of friends and social life.
- William LeFanu:
A Bibliography of Edward Jenner.
2nd ed. (1985), is the definitive study of his writings.
- F. D. Hart:
Benjamin Jesty: farmer vaccinator.
British Journal of Clinical Practice, London, 1988, 42: 33-34.
- Richard B. Fisher:
Edward Jenner 1749-1823. London, Andre Deutsch. 1991.
- S. Roberts:
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and the Reverend Cotton Mather: their campaigns for smallpox inoculation.
Journal of Medical Biography, London, 1996, 4: 129-136.
- Thomas A. Kerns:
Jenner on Trial: An Ethical Examination of Vaccine Research in the Age of Smallpox and the Age of Aids. 1997.