Paradoxical lid retraction associated with eye movements during 3rd nerve regeneration. While the eye may be adducted and lid elevated, no movement up or down occurs when the vertical recti contract together. It occurs classically in exophthalmic goiter, but also due to trauma or tumor at the base of the skull, anterior poliomyelitis or vascular lesions of the brain stem, with regenerating fibres growing to wrong muscles.
- M. B. Bender:
Nerve supply to orbicularis muscle and physiology of movement of upper eyelid, with particular reference to the Pseudo-Graefe phenomenon.
Archiv für Ophthalmologie, Berlin, 1936, 15: 21-30.
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