Intelligence test used particularly on children aged 3 to 15 years.
In the period from 1905 to 1908 the French psychologists Alfred Binet and Théodore Simon devised a series of tests whereby the intellectual capacity of the subject is estimated by comparison with that of normal children and adolescents of various ages. The mental age divided by the chronological age gives the so-called IQ, or intelligence quotient. Their formula stated that children under nine whose development is retarded by two years are probably mentally deficient and that children of nine or more who are retarded by three years are definitely deficient.
Alfred Binet explicitly defined intelligence as “the components of intelligence are reasoning, judgement, memory, and the power of abstraction.” He measured intelligence as “general mental ability of individuals in intelligent behaviours.” He described intelligence testing as classifying, not measuring.
- A. Binet, T. Simon:
Méthodes nouvelles pour le diagnostic du niveau intellectuel des anormaux.
L’Année psychologique, Paris, 1905, 11: 191-244. Le développement de l'intelligence chez les enfants.
L’Année psychologique, Paris, 1908, 14: 1-94. La mesure du développement de l’intelligence chez les jeunes enfants.
Paris, A. Coneslant, 1911.
- O. Bobertag:
Über Intelligenzprüfungen (nach der Methode Binet-Simon).
Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie, 1911, 5: 105-210. 1912; 6: 495-538.
- I. Norden:
Binetarium. Hilfsmittel zur Intelligenzprüfung nach Binet-Bobertag.
2nd edition, Göttingen, Hogrefe, 1953. First published in 1920.
Binetarium is a German term for the Simon-Binet tests.