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Petrus Camper - bibliography

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Dutch physician and anatomist, born May 11, 1722, Leiden; died April 7, 1789, The Hague.


  • Johannes Christianus Damen:
    Bericht von einer Schambeintrennung und deren glücklichen Erfolg.
    Translated from German by F. W. Jung. Frankfurt am Main and Leipzig, 1785. Works by Petrus Camper:
  • Dissertatio optica de visu. Leiden, 1746. Dissertation for Dr. philosophiae.
  • Dissertatio physiologica de quibusdam oculi partibus.
    Doctoral dissertation in medicine. Lugduni Batavorum (Leiden), 1746.
  • Demonstrationum anatomico-pathologicarum libri duo. Amsterdam, 1760-1762.
  • Redevoering over den oorsprong en de kleur der zwarten.
    [Lecture on the Origin and Color of Blacks]
    1764. Published in De Rhapsodist, 1772, 2: 373-394.
    In this address, Camper combated the myths of his days concerning the supposed close relationship of apes to the black race.
  • Oratio de pulchro. Rectoral address, 1766.
  • De Oculorum Fabrica et Morbis. Written in 1766 but never published in Camper's lifetime. It was first published in 1913 as part of the Opuscula selecta Neerlandicorum de arte medica (fasc. II).
  • De admirabili analogia inter animalia et stirpes.
  • Icones herniarium.
    Editae a S. T. Soemmerring. Francofurti ad Moenum, Varrentrapp & Wenner, 1801.
    Completed 1779, published 1801 by Samuel Thomas Soemmerring in Frankfurt.
  • Account of the Organs of Speech of the Orang Outang.
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1779, 69: 139-159.
  • Dissertation sur la meilleure forme des souliers. 1781.
    Classic discussion on childhood shoe-induced deformities. Dutch edition, 1781. English translation in Dowie, The foot and its covering, London, 1861.
    German: Über die beste Form der Schuhe.
  • Natuurkundige verhandelingen over den orang-outang; en eenige andere aap-soorten Over den Rhinocerus met den dubbelen horen; en over het rendier.
    [Essay on the Natural History of the Orang-utan and Other Monkey Species. On the Double-horned Rhinocerous; and on the Reindeer].
    Amsterdam: Meyer en Warnars, 1782.
  • Observationes circa mutationes quas subeunt calculi in vesica.
    Pestini, sumpt. J. M. Weingand, 1784.
  • Sämmtliche kleine Schriften, die Arzney-, Wundarzneykunst und Naturgeschichte betreffend.
    Translated and with supplement by J. F. M. Herbell.
    3 volumes, Leipzig, 1784-1788. English translation, 1794.
  • Dissertatio de fractura patellae et olecrani. Hagae Comitum, I. van Cleef, 1789.
  • Verhandeling over het naturrlijk verschil der wezenstrekken in menschen van onderscheiden landaart en ouderdom; over het schoon in antyke beelden en gesneedene steenen.
    Utrecht 1791.
    This work on cephalometry, in which Camper first described the facial angle (or Camper's line), probably has done more to perpetuate Campers name than his work as an anatomist and artist. German translation, 1792.
  • Dissertation sur les Variétés Naturelles qui caractérisent la Physionomie des hommes des divers climats et des différens âges. Suivie de Réflexions sur la Beauté ; particulièrement sur celle de la tête... et d'une Dissertation sur la meilleure Forme des souliers.
  • Ueber den natürlichen Unterschied der Gesichtszüge in Menschen verschiedener Gegenden und verschiedenen Alters.
    Berlin, Vossische Buchhandlung, 1792
    First published in Dutch in 1791. This work on physiognomy includes Camper's description of his craniometrical methods.
  • Redevoeeringen over die wijze om de verscheidene hartsogten op onze wezens te verbeelden . . . Utrecht, bij Wild en Altheer, 1792.
    Lectures on methods of preserving the passions of the human face, and on other aspects of medicine and arts. German translation, Berlin, 1793. Biographical etc.
  • A. G. Camper:
    Levensschets van P. Camper. Leeuwarden, 1791.
  • The Works of the Late Professor Camper, on the Connexion between the Science of Anatomy and the Arts of Drawing, Painting, Statuary.
    T. Cogan, translator, London, 1794.
  • Biographical sketch in: Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, 1803, 3: 257-262.
  • C. J. Doets:
    De heelkunde van Petrus Camper 1722-1789. Thesis, Leiden, 1848.
  • C. E. Daniëls:
    Het leven en de verdiensten van Petrus Camper. Utrecht, 1880.
  • Gerrit Arie Lindeboom (1905-1986):
    Camper, Peter (Pertrus).
    In: Charles Coulston Gillispie, editor in chief: Dictionary of Scientific Biographies. Charles Scribner’s Sons. New York, 1974, volume 3: 37-38.
  • R.P.W. Visser:
    The Zoological Work of Petrus Camper 1722–89.
    Amsterdam, 1985); with a bibliography.
  • W.R.H. Koops and J. Schuller tot Peursum-Meijer, editors:
    Petrus Camper (1722–89), onderzoeker van nature. Groningen, 1989.
  • Miriam Claude Meijer:
    Race and Aesthetics in the Anthropology of Petrus Camper (1722–89).
    Amsterdam and Atlanta, Georgia, 1999; with a bibliography.
  • La Correspondance, 1785-1787, de Petrus Camper (1722-1789) et son fils Adriaan-Gilles Camper (1759-1820).
    Amsterdam and Utrecht, APA-Holland University Press, 2002.

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