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Edward Tyson - bibliography

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English physician and comparative anatomist, born January 20, 1650, Clevedon, Somerset; died August 1, 1708, London.


  • Several anatomical observations. London and Oxford, 1680-1705.
  • Phocaena, or the Anatomy of a Porpess, Dissected at Gresham Colledge: With a Preliminary Discourse Concerning Anatomy, and a Natural History of Animals. London, 1680.
    Tyson’s porpess was really a Dolphin. This was the most complete description of a cetacean to that time.
  • Lumbricus latus, or a discourse read before the Royal Society of the joynted worm, wherein a great many mistakes of former writers concerning it, are remarked; its natural history from more exact observations is attempted; and the whole urged, as a difficulty against the doctrine of universal generation.
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 1683, 13: 112-144.
  • Lumbricus teres, or some anatomical observations on the round worm bred in human bodies.
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 1683, 13: 154-161.
    Tyson gave the first description of the anatomy of Ascaris lumbricoides. He was the first to see that the head of the tapeworm is on the tapered end of the worm.
  • Lumbricus hydropicus; or an essay to prove that hydatides often met with in morbid animal bodies, are a species of worms, or imperfect animals.
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 1691, 16: 506-510.
  • Cariqueya, seu marsupiale Americanum; or, the anatomy of an opossum.
    London, 1698.
  • Orang-Outang, Sive Homo Sylvestris: or, the Anatomy of a Pygmie Compared With That of a Monkey, an Ape, and a Man. To which Is Added, A Philological Essay Concerning the Pygmies, the Cynocephali, the Satyrs, and Sphinges of the Ancients. Wherein It Will Appear That They Are All Either Apes or Monkeys, and Not Men, as formerly pretended.
    London, printed for Thomas Bennet & Daniel Brown, 1699.
    2nd edition, London 1751, printed for T. Osborne. This edition also included several of Tyson’s shorter writings.
    A facsimile edition of Orang-Outang (London, 1966) has an introduction by M. F. Montague.
    The earliest work of importance in comparative morphology. Tyson compared the anatomy of man and monkeys and between the two he placded the chimpanzee, which he regarded as the typical pygmy. This was the origin of a ”missing link” in the ascent of man from the apes.
  • Vipera caudisona Americana; or, the anatomy of the rattlesnake, etc. Biographical etc:
  • August Hirsch (1817-1894), publisher:
    Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Ärzte aller Zeiten und Völker.
    2nd edition. Berlin, Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1929.
    First published in 6 volumes 1884-1888. 3rd edition, München 1962.
  • Montague Francis Ashley-Montagu (1905-1999):
    Edward Tyson, M.D. F.R.S. 1650-1708 and the Rise of Human and Comparative Anatomy in England.
    Philadelphia, 1943. With a complete bibliography of Tyson’s writings.
  • Wesley C. Williams:
    Tyson, Edward. In: Charles Coulston Gillispie, editor in chief: Dictionary of Scientific Biographies. Charles Scribner’s Sons. New York, 1970, 13: 526-528.
  • C. G. Roland:
    Tyson's anatomy of a pygmie, 1699.
    Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Rochester, August 1971, 46 (8): 560-561.
  • C. Newman:
    Edward Tyson. British Medical Journal, October 11, 1975, 4 (5988): 96-97.
  • Jeremy M. Norman, editor:
    Morton’s Medical Bibliography. An annotated Check-list of Texts Illustrating the History of Medicine (Garrison and Morton).
    Fifth edition. Scolar Press, 1991,
  • J. H. Baron:
    Edward Tyson's case of an American with gastric perforation.
    Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London, May-June 1998, 32 (3): 265-267.
  • A. J. Larner:
    Edward Tyson and The Anatomy of a Pygmie, 1699.
    Journal of Medical Biography, London, May 2000, 8 (2): 78-82.
  • Hartmut Böhme:
    Monster im Schatten der Aufklärung. Literarische Experimente im Grenzbereich.
    In: Mensch und Tier. Eine paradoxe Beziehung. Herausgegeben von der Stiftung Deutsches Hygiene-Museum. Hatje Cantz Verlag, Ostfildern Ruit, 2002, pp. 171-191.
  • Hugh Cahill:
    Book of the Month. Anatomy of a Pygmy – November / December 2003.
    Hugh Cahill is Senior Information Assistant, Foyle Special Collections Library.
  • L. Kruger:
    Edward Tyson's 1680 account of the 'porpess' brain and its place in the history of comparative neurology.
    Journal of the History of Neurosciences, December 2003, 12 (4): 339-349.
  • Frank N. Egerton:
    A History of the Ecological Sciences, Part 17: Invertebrate Zoology and Parasitology during the 1600s.
    Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, July 2005: 133-144.

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