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George Nicholas Papanicolaou - bibliography

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Greek-American cytologist and pathologist, born May 13, 1883, Kimi, on the island of Euboea, Greece; died February 19, 1962, Miami, Florida.


  • G. N. Papanicolaou and C. R. Stockard:
    The Existence of a Typical Oestrous Cycle in the Guinea Pig; with a Study of its histological and Physiological Changes.
    American Journal of Anatomy, 1917, 22: 225-283.
    The vaginal smear test for oestrus. It demonstrates the histological changes occurring in the vagina during the menstrual cycle.
  • G. N. Papanicolaou:
    New Cancer Diagnosis.
    Proceedings of the Third Race Betterment Conference, January 2-6. 1928. 1928: 528-534.
  • G. N. Papanicolaou and Herbert Traut:
    The diagnostic value of vaginal smears in carcinoma of the uterus.
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St. Louis, 1941, 42: 193-206.
    Smear diagnosis of carcinoma of the cervix. Papanicolaou first reported in 1928 that he could recognise cancer cells but the importance of his findings was not generally accepted and he abandoned the work for some years.
  • G. N. Papanicolaou and Herbert Traut:
    Diagnosis of Uterine Cancer by the Vaginal Smear. New York, 1943.
  • G. N. Papanicolaou:
    Atlas of Exfoliative Cytology. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1954.
  • G. N. Papanicolaou:
    Dedication of the Papanicolaou Cancer Research Institute.
    Journal of the American Medical Association, 1962, 182: 556-559.
  • H. Speert:
    Obstetric and Gynecologic Milestones. New York, 1958, p 286.
  • D. E. Carmichael:
    The Pap Smear: Life of George N. Papanicolaou. Springfield, Illinois, 1973.

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