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Lazzaro Spallanzani - bibliography

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Italian priest, physiologist and natural scientist, born January 12, 1729, Scandiano, in the province Reggio-Emilia; died February 11, 1799, Pavia, Cisalpine Republic.


    Works by and on authors referred to etc:
  • Georges Comte de Buffon:
    Histoire naturelle. 1749.
  • J. T. Needham:
    Nouvelles observations microscopiques . . . 1750.
    This is an expanded French version of a letter to the Royal Society of London on the generation, composition, and decomposition of animal and vegetable substances.
  • Beate Ceranski:
    Und sie fürchtet sich vor niemandem. Die Bologneser Physikerin Laura Bassi (1711-1778).
    Frankfurt a. M. 1995 (originally dissertation, 1995).
  • Andreas Kleinert:
    Maria Gaetana Agnesi und Laura Bassi: Zwei italienische gelehrte Frauen im 18. Jahrhundert.
    In: Willi Schmidt and Christoph J. Scriba, editors: Frauen in den exakten Naturwissenschaften. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1990, pp 71-85. Lazzaro Spallanzani:
  • These philosophique . . . Parma, 1757.
  • Propositiones physico-mathematicae. Reggio Emilia, 1757.
  • Riflessioni intorno alla traduzione dell'Iliade del Salvini . . . Parma 1760.
  • Saggio di osservazioni microscopiche concernenti il sistema della generazione dei Signori de Needham e Buffon.
    In his Dissertazione due . . . Modena, 1765.
    On the nature of organic beings, refuting the views of Needham and Buffon on the nature of infusion animalcules. Spallanzani, a believer in preformation theory, found that he could prevent contamination by microorganisms in strongly heated infusions protected from aerial contamination, but he observed that as soon as air was allowed to enter the flask, microorganisms proliferated. He was one of the first to dispute the doctrine of spontaneous generation.
  • Memorie sopre i muli . . .. Modena, 1768. On sterility in hybrids.
  • Dell'azione del cuore . . .. Modena, 1768. On the circulation of the blood.
    These two short monographs, along with Dizzertazioni due (1765) and Prodromo (1768) were republished in German translation as: Herrn Abt Spallanzanis physikalische und mathematische Abhandlungen. Leipzig, 1769.
  • Prodromo di un opera da imprimersi sopra la riproduzioni animali. Modena, 1768.
    In this preliminary to a large work on regeneration which was never published, Spallanzani described regenerative capacities of remarkable complexity and repetitiveness in the land snail, salamander and toad and frog, establishing the general law that an inverse ratio obtains between the regenerative capacity and age of individual. Includes an account of regeneration of the decapitated head of the snail.
    English translation by Matthieu Maty (1718-1776): An Essay On Animal Reproductions. London, 1769.
    This was the first work of Spallanzani to appear in English.
  • Prolusio. Modena, 1770. His University of Padua inaugural address.
  • De’ fenomeni della circolazione osservata nel giro universale de’ vasi etc.
    Modena, 1773.
    On the circulation in cold-blooded animals and chick embryos.
    French translation by Joseph Tourdes (1770-1851) as: Expériences sur la circulation . . .. Paris, 1800.
    English translation R. Hall as: Experiments Upon the Circulation of the Blood. London, 1801.
  • Opuscoli di fiscia animale e vegetabile. 2 volumes. Modena, Soc. Tipografica, 1776.
    French translation by Jean Senebier as: Opuscules de physique, animale, et végétale. 2 volumes, Geneva, 1777, 1785, 1786, 1787.
    English translation by Thomas Beddoes (1754-1808) as: Tracts on Animals and Vegetables. 2 volumes, London, 1784, 1786.
    English translation by J. Dalyell: Tracts on the Nature of Animals and Vegetables. 2 volumes, Edinburgh, 1799.
    Second edition as: Tracts on the Natural History of Animals and Vegetables. Edinburgh, 1803.
    Later confutation of the theory of spontaneous generation. Spallanzani's conclusions were similar to those expressed by Pasteur's nearly a century later.
  • Fecondazione artificiale.
    Podromo della nuova enciclopedia Italiana. Siena, 1779, pp 129-134.
  • Dissertazioni di fisica animale e vegetabile.
    2 volumes; Modena, Presso la Società Tipografica, 1780.
    Second edition as: Fisica animale e vegetabile. 3 volumes, Venice, 1782.
    Contains his experimental enquiries into digestion in various animal species ("Digestione"), reproduction in animals and plants("Della generazione di alcuni animali . . . di diverse plante"), and artificial fecundation ("Sopra la fecondazione artificiale in alcuni animali").
    Spallanzani confirmed earlier doctrines of the solvent property of the gastric juice and discovered the action of the saliva in digestion. He stated that gastric juice can act outside the body and can prevent or inhibit putrefaction. He obtained gastric juice by tying a sponge on a piece of string, then allowing it to be swallowed.
    English translation: Dissertations Relative to the Natural History of Animals and Vegetables. 2 volumes, London, 1784.
    German translation, Leipzig, 1785-1788.
    The sections on digestion and on reproduction, translated by Senebier, appeared separately as:
  • Expériences sur la digestion de l'homme et de différentes espèces d'animaux . . .
    Geneva, 1783, 1784; facsimile edition, Paris, 1756.
    Expériences pour servir à l'histoire de la génération des animaux et des plantes . . . Geneva, 1785.
  • Fecondazione artificiale di una cagna.
    Opusculi scelti sulle scienze e sulli arti . . . 1781, 4: 279-282.
    An account of the artificial insemination of a bitch.
  • Resultati de esperienze sopra la riproduzione della testa nelle lumache terrestri.
    Memorie di matematica e fisica della società Italiana, 1782, 1: 581-612
    Memorie di matematica e fisica della società Italiana, 1784, 2: 506-602.
  • Osservazioni sopra alcune trombe di mare formatesi sull' Adriatico.
    Memorie di matematica e fisica della società Italiana, 1788, 4: 473-479.
    Describes waterspouts in the Adriatic.
  • Viaggi alle due Sicilie e in alcune parti dell’Appennino.
    6 volumes in 8, Pavia, B. Comini, 1792-1797.
    A report of his scientific voyage to southern Italy.
    Norman 1984: "From a cavern near Stromboli he noted that gas explosions forced up the red-hot lava and ejected massive rocks, an observation fundamental to vulcanology."
    French translation: Voyages dans les Deux-Siciles, et dans quelques parties des Apennins. 6 volumes. Bern, 1795-1797.
    German translation: Des Abtes Spallanzani Reisen in beyde Sicilien und in Gegenden der Appenninen. 5 volumes. Leipzig, 1795.1798.
    English translation: Travels in the two Sicilies, and some parts of the Apennines.
    4 volumes. London, 1798.
    The original work was offered for 12,000 French francs in the late 1990's. The French translation for 6,000 francs.
  • Memoria sopra le medise fosforiche.
    Memorie di matematica e fisica della società Italiana, 1794, 7: 271-290.
    On a phosphorescent jellyfish.
  • Lettere sopra il sospetto di un nuovo senso nei pipistrelli. . .. Torino, 1794.
  • Lettere sul volo dei pipistrelli acciecati. Giornale de letterati, 1794, 13: 120-186.
    Recording correspondence about his experiments on the sense of direction in bats.
  • Chimico esame degli esperimenti del Sig. Gottling, professor a Jena, sopra la luce del fosforo di Kunkel . . .. Modena, 1796.
    Referring to Johann Friedrich August Göttling (1755-1809), professor of chemistry, pharmacy and technology at Jena. Spallanzani criticises Göttling's chemical explanation of the luminosity og phosphorus.
  • Lettera . . . sopra le piante chiuse ne' vasi dentro l'acqua e l'aria, ed eposte all'immediato lume solare, e all'ombra.
    Opuscoli scelti sulle scienze e sulle arti . . . . 1798, 20: 134-146.
    On exposure to sunlight or shade of plants kept in water or air.
  • Memorie sulla respirazione. 2 volumes. Milano, 1803.
    Posthumous publication of a work not completed by Spallanzani.
    French translation by Jean Senebier: Mémoires sur la respiration. Geneva, 1803.
  • Opere de Lazzaro Spallanzani. Milano, 1825-1826.
    6 volumes with portrait and illustrations. A complete edition of Spallanzani’s work
  • Le opere de Lazzaro Spallanzani.
    His collected works, compiled by Filippo Bottazzi (1867-1941) and ten collaborators under the auspices of the Royal Academy. Milano, 1932-1933.
  • Lazzaro Spallanzani. Epistolario. Florence, 1958-1964.
    Includes Spallanzani's letters, edited by Benedetto Biagi. After the death og Biagi, Dino Prandi became co-editor, adding to the collection until 1,475 letters, written to 173 individuals or institutions and twelve anonymous addresses,.
  • Dino Prandi:
    Bibliografia delle opere di Lazzaro Spallanzani. Florence, 1951.
    A detailed and generally dependable bibliography.

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