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Niels Stensen - bibliography

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Biography

Danish anatomist, natural scientist, and theologist, born January 10/11, 1638, Copenhagen; died November 25/December 5, 1686, Schwerin, Germany. Name also written as Steensen. Latin: Nicolaus Stenonius. Italian: Stenone; French Stenon.

Bibliography

    Works referred to etc:
  • G. Aselli:
    De lactibus sive lacteis venis, quarto vasorum meseraicorum genere novo invento, dissertatio, qua sententiae anatomicae multae, vel perperam receptae convelluntur, vel parum perceptae illustrantur etc. Morte praeventus ut ederetur curarunt Alexander Tadinus et Senator Septalius physici de Coll. Nob. Mediol. Etc. Bidellium, 1627. Publication of Asellis discovery of 1622.
  • G. Casseri:
    Tabulae anatomicae lxxiix. Venetis, apud E. Deuchinum, 1627.
  • J. G. Wirsung:
    Figura ductus cuiusdam cum multiplicibus suis ramulis nuiter in pancreate a Jo. Georg Wirsüng phil. et med. D. in diuersis corporibus humanis observati.
    Padua, 1642.
  • T. Bartholin:
    Vasa lymphatica nuper hafniae in animalibus inventa et hepatis exsequiae.
    Hafniae (Copenhagen), Petrus Hakius, 1653. Facsimile edition, 1916.
  • T. Wharton:
    Adenographia: Sive glandularum totius corporis descriptio. London, 1656.
  • Gerhard Bläes (Blasius):
    Medicina generalis. 1661.
  • W. Croone:
    De ratione motus musculorum. Londini, excud. J. Hayes, 1664.
    2n edition, revised according to Stensen’s findings, 1670.
  • R. de Graaf:
    De mulierum organis generatione. Leyden 1672.
  • J. Pecquet:
    Experimenta nova anatomica, quibus incognitum hactenus chyli receptaculum et ab eo per thoracem in ramos usque subclavios vasa lactea detegnuntur.
    Harderwyk, 1651; Paris, 1654.
    Expanded editon, Hardewyk, 1655; Amsterdam, 1661, Genua, 1654.
    Also in:
  • Sibout Hemsterhuys:
    Messis aurea triennalis exhibens anatomica novissima et utilissima experimenta.
    2nd edition, Heidelberg 1659. This work first appeared in Leyden in 1654.
  • Daniel Leclerc (Clericus, 1652-1728) and Jean Jacques Manget (1652-1742):
    Bibliotheca anatomica sive recens in anatomia inventorum thesaurus locupletissimus etc.
    2nd edition in 2 volumes, Geneve, 1699. This work first appeared in Geneva in 1685. Collected works:
  • Nicolai Stenonis opera philosophica.
    Edited by Vilhelm Mar. 2 volumes, Copenhagen 1910. Includes the scientific works.
  • Nicolai Stenonis opera theologica . . .
    Edited by Knud Larsen and Gustav Scherz. Copenhagen, 1941, 1947.
    Contains Stensen’s theological and ascetical writings.
  • Nicolae Stenonis apistolae ad eum datae . . .
    Edited by Gustav Scherz. 2 volumes; Copenhagen-Fribourg, 1952.
    Includes Stensen’s correspondence with an introduction to the correspondents, notes, and documents.
  • Pionier der Wissenschaft, Niels Stensen in seinen Schriften. Copenhagen, 1963. Works by Niels Stensen
  • Observationes anatomicae, quibus varia oris, oculorum & narium vas describuntur novique salivae, lacrymarum & muci fontes deteguntur.
    Lugduni Batavorum (Leiden), J. Chouët, 1662.
    In this work Stensen assembled a collection of the observations and studies he had made of the glands of the eye, vessels of the nose, salivary and lacrimal glands, and the duct of the parotid gland (Stensen’s duct). Includes his Disputatio anatomoca de glandulus oris . . . (1661).
    Facsimile reproduction, with English translation, Copenhagen 1951.
    Danish: Niels Stensens anatomiske iakttakelser ved hvilke forskjellige kar i munnen, øyet og nesen beskrives.
  • De musculis et glandulis observationem specimen.
    Hafnia, lit. M. Godiechenii, 1664.
    Includes two letters: “De anatome rajae apistola” and “De vitelli in intestina pulli transitu epistola.”
    Stensen described the structure of muscles, the fibra motrix, confirming that contraction actually occurs in the muscle fibres, not in the tendon as Galen had thought. He attempted a geometrical description of muscle contraction. He described the anatomy of the heart and its function as a muscle, and described the anatomy and function of the respiratory muscles including the diaphragm.
    English translation of the section on the muscles and the tongue in J. E. Poulason & E. Snorrason, Nicolaus Steno 1638-1686, A re-consideration by Danish scientists. Gentofte, Denmark, 1986.
    The Swiss poet and naturalist Albrecht von Haller (1700-77) called it a "golden little book".
  • Elementorum myologicae specimen.
    Florentiae, ex typ. Syb signo Stellae, 1667.
    Also published as Bibliotheca anatomica (an abrigded English version). London, 1709-1714.
    In this work Stensen, in collaboration with the mathematician Vincenzio Viviani (1622-1703), a pupil of Galileo, developed a geometrical description of muscular contraction, and attempted to show theoretically that muscles did not increase in volume during contraction. The appendix contains his anatomical descriptionsof the head of two sharks. In discussing the relationship of the shark teeth to similar-shaped fossil stones found in the Mediterranean, Stensen developed theories of how geological structures and fossils might be formed.
    Translated by A. Garboe as The earliest geological treatise (1667), London, 1958.
  • Discours sur l’anatomie du cerveau. Paris, Robert de Ninville, 1669.
    Also published in: G. Scherz: Nicolaus Steno’s Lecture on the Anatomy of the Brain. Copenhagen, 1965.
    In this remarkably prescient argument for and critique of anatomical research into brain function Stensen opposed Descartes (1574) arguing that it was idle to speculate about cerebral function when so little was known about the anatomical structure of the brain.
    Stensen proved anatomically that the pineal gland was not the seat of the soul.
    Latin translation, Leiden, 1671.
    Modern English translation, Copenhagen, 1950.
  • De solido intra solidum naturaliter contento dissertationis prodromus.
    Firenze, 1669.
    Translated by H. O[Oldenburg]: The Prodromus to a Dissertation concerning Solids naturally Contained Within Solids . . . London, 1671.
    Also translated bat John G. Winter: The Prodromus of Nicolas Steno’s Dissertation Concerning a Solid Body Enclosed by Process of Nature Within a Solid. New York, 1916.
    Danish: Foreløpig meddelelse om faste legemer som er naturlig innlejret i andre faste legemer.
  • Embryo monstro affinis Parisiis dissectur.
    Acta medica & philosophica Hafniensia, 1671-72, 1: 202-203.
    First known description of tetralogy of Fallot. Reprinted in Opera philosophica, ed. W. Maar, Volume 2, Copenhagen, V. Tryde, 1910, pp 49-53.
    For translation, see Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic, 1948, 23: 317.
  • Prooemium demonstrationum anatomicarum in Theatro Hafniensi anni 1673.
    Acta Faniensia, 1673.
  • Nicolai Stenonis ad novae philosophiae reformatorem de vera philosophia epistola.
    Firenze, 1675.
  • Nicolai Stenonis de propria conversione epistola. Firenze, 1677.
  • Parochorum hoc age seu evidens demonstratio quod parochus teneatur omnes alias occupationes dimittere et suae attendere perfectioni ut sommissas sibi oves ad statum salutis aeternae ipsis a Christo praeparatum perducat.
    Firenze, 1684.
  • Opera philosophica. 2 volumes, Copenhagen, 1909-1910.
    His philosophical works published by Vilhelm Maar. Biographical etc.
  • Vilhelm Maar, publisher:
    Nicolai Stenonis Opera Philosophica. København, 1910.
  • V. Meisen:
    Prominent Danish Scientists. Copenhagen, 1932: 36-43.
  • K. Larsen:
    Stenos Forhold til Filosofi og religion.
    Kirkehistoriske Samlinger. København, 1938: 511-553.
  • Knud Larsen & Gustav Scherz, publishers:
    Nicolai Stenonis Opera Theologica, bind 1-2. København& Freiburg 1941/1947.
  • Gustav Scherz:
    Vom Wege Niels Stensens. Beiträge zu seiner naturwissenschaftlichen Entwicklung.
    Copenhagen 1956. 248 pages.
    Volume 14 of Acta historica scientiarum naturalium et medicinalium.
  • A. D. Jørgensen:
    Niels Stensen. København, 1958.
  • Max Bierbaum:
    Niels Stensen. Von der Anatomie zur Theologie. Münster, 1959.
  • R. Cioni:
    Niels Stensen. Scientist-Bishop. New York, 1962.

  • Adolf Faller(1913-1989):
    Die philosophischen Voraussetzungen des Anatomen und Biologen Niels Stensen.
    Arzt und Christ, Salzburg, 1962.
  • J. Nordstrøm:
    Antonio Magliabechi och Nicolaus Steno. Lychnos, 1962, 20: 1-42.
  • G. Scherz:
    Niels Stensen. Forscher und Denker im Barock. Stuttgart, 1964.
  • Beatificationis et canonizationis Servi Dei Nicolai Stenonis. POSITIO, Rom 1974.
  • Max Bierbaum, Adolf Faller:
    Niels Stensen : Anatom, Geologe und Bischof, 1638-1686.
    2nd, revised and expanded edition.: Aschendorff : Verlag Münster, 1979.
  • Michael Jensen:
    Bibliographia Nicolai Stenonis. Mørke 1986.
  • Harriet M. Hansen, publisher:
    Niels Steensens korrespondance i dansk oversættelse, bind 1-2.
    København, 1987.
  • Gustav Scherz:
    Niels Stensen. Eine Biographie. Volume 1-2, Leipzig 1987-1988.
  • Harald Moe:
    Niels Stensen. En billedbiografi. København, 1988.
  • Erik Kenneth Palsson, Wrik K. Palsson:
    Niels Steensen: Scientist and Saint. Ignatius Pr, 1988.
  • M. Bierbaum, Josef Traeger, A. Faller:
    Niels Stensen : Anatom, Geologe und Bischof, 1638-1686.
    3rd edition. Aschendorff : Verlag Münster, 1989.
  • Sebastian Olden-Jørgensen:
    Niels Steensens sentenser og spiritualitet.(Ælnoths skriftserie II), Gjerrild 1992.
  • Miriam Mortensen:
    Skønnest af alt. En biografi om Niels Steensen. København, 1993.
  • August Ziggelaar, publisher:
    Chaos. Niels Stensen's Chaos-Manuscript Copenhagen, 1659. Copenhagen, 1997,
  • Alan Cutler:
    The Seashell on the Mountaintop: A Story of Science, Sainthood, and the Humble Genius Who Discovered a New History of the Earth. 2003.
We thank Patrick Jucker-Kupper, Switzerland, for information submitted.

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