- A dictionary of medical eponyms

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz - bibliography

Related eponyms


German physician, physicist, and philosopher, born August 31, 1821, Potsdam, Prussia; died September 8, 1894, Charlottenburg, Berlin.


•  De fabrica systematis nervosi evertebratorum. Doctoral dissertation. Berlin, 1842.

•  Ueber den Stoffverbrauch bei der Muskelaktion.
   Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und wissenschaftliche Medicin, 1845: 72-83.

•  Über die Erhaltung der Kraft. Berlin, 1847.    
   In this book Helmholtz set forth the philosophical and physical basis of the conservation of energy. It    
   drew heavily on the works of Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1796–1832), Benoît Émile Clapeyron
  (1799–1864), Karl Holtzmann (1811–1865), and James Prescott Joule (1818–1889), although it was far
    more comprehensive than those previous treatises. 

•  Beschreibung eines Augen-Spiegels zur Untersuchung der Netzhaut im lebenden Auge. 
   Berlin 1851: Förstnersche Verlagsbuchhandlung     
    [Helmholtz's first description of his invention of the ophthalmoscope].

•  Ueber die Wechselwirkung der Naturkräfte u.s.w. Königsberg, 1854.

•  Ueber die Wärmeentwicklung bei der Muskelaction. 
   Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und wissenschaftliche Medicin, Berlin, 1848: 144-164.
   Helmholtz showed the muscles to be the principal source of animal heat.

•  Ueber die Accomodation des Auges. 
   [Graefes] Archiv für Ophthalmologie, Berlin, 1855, 1, part 2: 1-74.  
   Helmholtz determined the optical constants and explained the mechanism of accomodation, with the  
   help of the ophthalmometer which he had invented in 1852.

•  Ueber das Sehen des Menschen. Leipzig, 1855.

•  Handbuch der physiologischen Optik. 3 volumes, Leipzig 1856-1867. 
   In allgemeine encyklopädie der Physik.
   It was during his tenure at Heidelberg that this monumental treatise on optics was written. Orirginally
   issued in parts between 1856 and 1866, the work provided the first real description of optical physiology
   including the mechanism of accommodation, the phenomenon of color vision, and the measurement of
   lens curvature.
   In this book Helmholtz extended Müller's doctrine of the specific energies of nerves to offer a
   comprehensive theory of color vision and a famous unconscious inference theory of perception.  
   Helmholtz reasoned that just as the differences between sensations of sound and light reflect the
   specific qualities of auditory and visual nerves, sensations of color may depend on different kinds of
   nerves within the visual system. Since the laws of color mixture suggest that virtually all hues can be
   obtained by various combinations of three primary colors, it seemed to Helmholtz that the perceived hue,
   brightness, and saturation of color must be derived from varying activity in three primary kinds of nerve
   fibers in the eye. 

•  Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen als physiologische Grundlage für die Theorie der Musik.  
   Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1862; 1863; 1865.

•  Ueber die normalen Bewegungen des menschlichen Auges. 
   Archiv für Ophthalmologie, Berlin, 1863, 9: 2: 152-214. Hamburg 1897.

•  Ueber den Horopter. Archiv für Ophthalmologie, Berlin, 1864, 10: I, 1-60.

•  Populäre wissenschaftliche Vorträge. 3 Hefte, Braunschweig, 1865, 1871, 1876.
   Contains, among other things: Die neueren Fortschritte in der Theorie des Sehens. Heft 2: 1-98.
 Ueber die Erhaltung der Kraft. Heft 2: 137-179.

•  Vorlesungen über die elektromagnetische Theorie des Lichts. 
   Arthur König and Carl Runge, editors. Hamburg, 1867. 

•  Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen von Hermann Helmholtz.  A collection of his papers.
   3 volumes. Leipzig, 1882. His lectures on popular and philosophical subjects are available as Populäre
   wissenschaftliche Vorträge. 3 volumes, Brunswick, 1865-1876; and Vorträge und Reden. 3 volumes,
   Leipzig 1882. 2 volumes, Braunschweig, 1884. 

•  Populäre wissenschaftliche Vorträge. 3 volumes, Braunschweig 1865–1876.

•  Vorträge und Reden, 2 volumes, Braunschweig 1884.

•  Goethe's Vorahnungen kommender naturwissenschaftlicher Ideen. 
   Rede, gehalten in der Generalversammlung der Goethe-Geselsschaft zu Weimar den 11. Juni 1892.
   Berlin, Gebrüder Paetel, 1892. 

•  Vorlesungen über theoretische Physik. 6 volumes. Leipzig, 1897-1907. 

•  Ueber die Mechanik der Gehörknochelchen und des Trommelfells. Pflügers Archiv, 1954.


Biographical, etc.

Julius Robert Meyer:
•  Bemerkungen über die Kräfte der unbelebten Natur,
   Liebig’s Annalen, 1842.
   In this article, Meyer describes not only the mechanical theory of heat but the entire doctrine of the Conserevation og energi is explicitly if briefly stated. 

H. Kronecker:
•  Hermann von Helmholtz. Akademischer Vortrag, Bern, 1894. 31 pages.

Helmholtz, Hermann von
•  In Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography 
   Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York 2008.

Leo Koenigsberger:
•  Hermann von Helmholtz. 3 volumes, Braunschweig, 1902–1903.
   A bridged translation by Francecs A. Welby: Hermann von Helmholtz, Oxford 1906, New York 1965.

Emil du Bois Reymond:
•  Hermann von Helmholtz. Gedächtnissrede. 1897.

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