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Johann Gaspar Spurzheim - bibliography

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German physician, born December 31, 1776, Longuich near Trier, Germany; died November 10, 1832, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.


    A list of Spurzheim's works is in A. A. Walsh’s introduction to Observations on the deranged manifestations of the Mind, or Insanity, by J. G. Spurzheim. Gainesville, Florida, 1970.
  • F. J. Gall and J. C. Spurzheim:
    Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général et du cerveau en particulier; avec des observations sur la possibilité de reconnaître plusieurs dispositions intellectuelles et morales de l’homme et des animaux par la configuration de leur têtes.
    4 volumes and Atlas. Paris, F. Schoell, 1810-1819.
    Volume 1, 1810. Volume 2, 1812.
    Volume 3, 1818. Volume 4, 1819.
    Spurzheim was co-author of the first two volumes. The two authors parted in 1813, after the first 146 pp of volume 2. The remainder was written by Gall alone.
    The one hundred plates which comprise the atlas are exquisitely rendered.
    German translation of volume 1, 1810.
    2nd, revised edition, as aSur les fonctions du cerveau . . . See below.
  • F. J. Gall and J. C. Spurzheim:
    Observations sur la phrénologie, ou la connaissance de l’homme moral et intellectuel, fondée sur les fonctions du système nerveux.
    Strasbourg and Paris, 1810; new edition 1818.
  • F. J. Gall and J. C. Spurzheim:
    Des dispositions innées de l’âme et de l’esprit; du matérialisme, du fatalisme et de la liberté morale, avec des réflections sur l’éducation et sur la legislation criminelle.
    Paris, 1811.
    This is a separate printing of extracts from volumes 1-2 of Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux
    refuting accusations of materialism.
  • F. J. Gall and J. C. Spurzheim:
    Crâne. In: Dictionnaire des sciences médicales. Volume 7, Paris, 1813, pp. 260-266.
  • F. J. Gall and J. C. Spurzheim:
    Cerveau. In: Dictionnaire des Sciences Medicales. Volume 4, Paris, 1813, pp. 447-9.
    Reprinted in Appendix to John Gordon, Observations on the Structure of the Brain, 1817, pp. 185-207. Spurzheim:
  • Observations sur la phrénologie, ou la connaissance de l’homme moral et intellectuel, fondée sur les fonctions du système nerveux.
    Paris, Treuttel: Würtz, 1818.
  • Des dispositions innées de l’âme et de l’esprit; du materialisme, du fatalisme et de liberté morale; etc.
    Written with Franz Josef Gall. Strassburg (and Paris?), 1812.
  • The Physiognomical System of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim: Founded on an Anatomical and Physiological Examination of the Nervous System in General, and of the Brain in Particular; and indicating the Dispositions and Manifestations of the Mind. Being at the same time a book of reference for Dr. Spurzheim’s demonstrative lectures.
    London, 1815.
  • Outlines of the Physiognomical System of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim etc.
    London, 1815.
  • Observations on the Deranged Manifestations of the Mind, or Insanity.
    London, 1817. Boston, 1833, 1835, 1836;
    New edition: Observations on insanity. 1840.
    French translation, Paris, 1818.
    German by Elieser Salomo von Embden (born 1775):
    Beobachtungen über den Wahnsinn. Hamburg, 1818.
  • Examinations of the objections in Britain against the doctrines of Gall and Spurzheim.
    Edinburgh, 1817; Boston, 1833.
  • Observations sur la phrénologie. Paris, 1818.
  • Essai philosophique sur la nature morale et intellectuelle de l’homme.
    Paris, 1820.
    German translation by Jacob Hergenröther, Würzburg, 1822.
  • Du cerveau sous le rapport anatomique. Doctoral thesis, Paris, 1821.
  • A View of the Elementary Principles of Education Founded on the Study of the Nature of Man.
    Edinburgh, 1821; London, 1828, 1840.
    New York, 1847; French translation, 1822.
    18: . . . of the human nature.
  • Précis de phrénologie, contenant l’exposition du buste. Paris, 1825.
  • Phrenology: or, The doctrine of the mind, and of the relations between its manifestations and the body.
    London 1825, 1840; Boston, 1832.
    Spurzheim produced several English works on phrenology. In this book he presents the major tenets of the science, such as the belief that the brain is an “aggregation of organs”, including such parts as the “organ of self-esteem,” “organ of marvelousness,” “organ of ideality, etc. Drawings of appropriately shaped craniums are included to demonstrate the dominance of the various traits and their corresponding protubeances.
  • A view of the philosophical principles of phrenology.
    London, 1825, 1826, 1840.
  • Phrenology in connexion with the study of physiognomy.
    2 volumes, London and Edinburgh, 1826; 4th edition, Boston, 1833.
  • The anatomy of the brain, with a general view of the nervous system.
    Translated from the unpublished French manuscript by Robert Willis (1799-1878), etc. London, 1826, 1840; Boston, 1834, 1836.
  • Appendix to the anatomy of the Brain. 1830.
  • Outlines of phrenology being also a manual of reference for the marked busts; etc.
    London, 1828; Boston, 1832.
  • Sketch of the natural laws of man. Edinburgh, 1828.
  • Manuel de phrénologie. Paris, 1832.
  • Biography of the author. By Spurzheim in his Phrenology in connexion with the study of physiognomy. Boston, 1833, pp 9-168. Works on Spurzheim and his time.
    See also bibliography under Franz Josef Gall.
  • Andrew Carmichael:
    A Memoir of the Life and Philosophy of Spurzheim.
    Boston, 1833.
    The only complete book on Spurzheim’s life. Considered generally well done, despite some errors.
  • Nahum Capen:
    Reminiscences of Dr. Spurzheim and George Combe: And a Review of the Science of Phrenology, From the Period of Its Discovery by Dr. Gall to the Time of the Visit of George Combe to the United States, 1838, 1840.
    Boston, 1881.
  • W. M. Williams:
    A Vindication of Phrenology. London, 1894.
    Discusses Spurzheim in England, pp. 328-340.
  • A. Walsh:
    The American Tour of Dr. Spurzheim.
    Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Oxford, 1972; 27: 187-205.
    Johann Christoph Spurzheim and the Rise and Fall of Scientific Phrenology in Boston.
    Doctoral dissertation, University of New Hampshire, 1974. See also The History of Phrenology on the Web

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