- A dictionary of medical eponyms

Sándor Korányi

Born  1866
Died  1944

Related eponyms

Hungarian physician, born June 18, 1866 Pest, Hungary, Austria-Hungary; died April 12, 1944 Budapest Hungary.

Biography of Sándor Korányi

Sándor Korányi was the son of Friedrich von Korányi (1828-1913), professor of internal medicine at the Budapest University. He finished his studies in Budapest in 1888 and subsequently spent some time in Germany in laboratories of physical chemistry, including with Ernst Felix Immanuel Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) and Friedrich Leopold Goltz’ (1834-1902) in Strasbourg.

After his return to Hungary in 1890 he he worked for one year as head of the physiological institute of the Budapest veterinary college.

At about this time a particular patient had a great influence on his thinking. Korányi had to decide, at the request of a urological colleague, whether a kidney, of which the ureter had been cut and attached to the skin, could be safely removed. As the concentration of several urinary solutes on that side was clearly lower than that of the bladder urine, Korányi counselled nephrectomy, which was carried out with excellent long-term results

He was habilitated for internal medicine in 1893, becoming professor extraordinary in 1900. From 1895 he headed a department of intenal medicine at the city hospital in, and from 1907 he was full professor of diagnostics. In 1909 he became director of the 3rd. Medical clinic.

Korányi was the founder of the modern nephrophysiology and nephropathology. He was the first to define renal failure and introduced special diagnostic method for this: determination of the decline of the chill point of blood and urine.

Korányi Was one of the first to use chemical methods in medicine, an establisher and developer of the functional approach in medicine instead of morphological approach. It was Korányi who discovered that in high altitude the higher rate of red blood cells in the blood is caused by lack of oxygen. He also discovered benzene as a treatment against leukemia, but this treatment was abandones because of its side effects.

Using physicochemical methods to estimate renal function, he found characteristic changes in the freezing point depression of urine, which he termed hyposthenuria. On the basis of these findings, he was the first to introduce the functional concept of renal insufficiency.

Korányi Pulmonology and Tuberculosis Hospital and Sanatorium, beautifully situated at the far western end of Budapest, is named in his honour.

Sándor Korányi was an honourable member of Die Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina.


  • Vizsgálatok a vizeletelválasztó rendszer működésére vonatkozóan ép és kóros viszonyok között. Magyar Orvosi Archivum, 1894.
  • Beiträge zur Theorie und Therapie der Niereninsuffizienz.
    Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, volume 36, 1899.
  • Physikalische Chemie und Medizin.
    Sándor Korányi and P. F. Richter. 2 volumes, Leipzig, 1907–1908.
  • A leukaemia kezelése benzollal. [Treatament of leukemia with benzene].
    Orvosi hetilap, Budapest, 1912.
  • Krankheiten des Harnorgans. In: Julius Schwalbe (1863-1930), publisher: Diagnostische und therapeutische Irrtümer und deren Verhütung. Leipzig, 1917. 2nd edition in 1922.
  • Functionelle Pathologie und Therapie der Nierenkrankheiten. Berlin, 1929.
  • Élettan és orvosi tudomány. Orvosképzés, 1932.
  • Az öregedésről. Orvosképzés, 1937. Biographical etc:
  • Isidor Fischer (1869-1943), publisher:
    Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Ärzte der letzten fünfzig Jahre.
    Berlin – Wien, Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1932.
  • A belgyógyászat alapvonalai [Baselines of Internal Medicine].
    I. Magyar, Gy. Petrányi.
    Egyetemi tankönyv, Budapest, 1953: 1285
  • [Sándor Korányi and his works.] German.
    I. Rusznyák.
    Acta medica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Budapest, 1954, 6 (Supplement 1): 4-23.
  • [Sándor Korányi and his work.] Hungarian.
    I. Rusznyák.
    Orvosi hetilap, Budapest, November 21, 1954, 95 (47): 1280-1288.
  • [Sándor Korányi and his activities.]Russian.
    István Ruszníák (1889-1974).
    Acta medica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Budapest, 1955, 7 (1-2): 1-19.
  • [Frigyes Korányi and Sandor Korányi, leading personalities in the fight against tbc in Hungary.]Hungarian.
    D. Mosolygo.
    Nepegeszseguegy, May 1963, 44: 131-135.
  • [On the centennary of the birth of Sándor Korányi] Hungarian.
    [No authors listed]
    Orvosi hetilap, Budapest, June 19, 1966, 107 (25): 1153-1154.
  • [The youthful Sándor Korányi in Vas County] Hungarian.
    L. Smidt.
    Orvosi hetilap, Budapest, December 25, 1966, 107 (52): 2472-2474.
  • Frigyes and Sándor Korányi.
    G. Regöly-Mérei.
    JAMA, Chicago, February 3, 1969, 207 (5): 953.
  • [Sebald Korányi] Hungarian.
    A. Fazekas.
    Orvosi hetilap, Budapest, December 24, 1972, 113 (52): 3149-3150.
  • [Sándor Korányi and the functional view in clinical medicine] Hungarian.
    O. Kerpel-Fronius.
    Orvosi hetilap, Budapest, July 16, 1978, 119 (29): 1793-1794.
  • [The night of 30 June 1936. A moving document on the final closing of the Korányi Clinic] Hungarian.
    I. Magyar.
    Orvosi hetilap, Budapest, September 3, 1989, 130 (36): 1941-1944, 1947. li>[Sándor Korányi in Hungarian medicine]
    G. Birtalan.
    Orvosi hetilap, Budapest, November 14, 1993, 134 (46): 2545-2548. Hungarian.
  • [Sándor Korányi in Hungarian public health] Hungarian.
    G. Birtalan.
    Orvosi hetilap, Budapest, November 28, 1993, 134 (48): 2659-2662.
  • [Insulin therapy at the Korányi Clinic 1923] Hungarian.
    J. Hidvégi.
    Orvosi hetilap, Budapest, September 3, 1995, 136 (36): 1953-1954.
  • [Life and work of Sándor Korányi, founder of renal physiopathology] French.
    S. Sonkodi.
    Nephrologie, Genève, 1996, 17 (5): 303-305.
  • "...sixty years ago...something broke...". Hungarian.
    P. Braun.
    Orvosi hetilap, Budapest, September 22, 1996, 137 (38): 2097-2099.
  • Sándor Korányi (1866-1944).
    S. Sonkodi.
    Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, October 1996, 11 (10): 1958-1960.
  • Hyposthenuria: Sándor Korányi's Concept of Renal Insufficiency.
    S. Sonkodi.
    Series: Origins of Nephrology - The Modern Era.
    American Journal of Nephrology, 1999, 19 (2): 320-322.
  • [About homeopathy. 1930] Hungarian.
    S. Koranyi.
    Orvosi hetilap, Budapest, August 11, 2002, 143 (32): 1907-1911; discussion 1911-1912.
  • Biography of Sándor von Korányi.
    L. Rosivall.
    Acta physiologica Hungarica, Budapest, March 2007, 94 (1-2): 3-5.
  • Festschrift in memory of Sándor von Korányi (1866-1944) to commemorate his 140th birthday.
    [No authors listed]
    Acta physiologica Hungarica, Budapest, March 2007, 94 (1-2): 1-166.
  • [The role of Sándor Korányi and the High Tatras in unravelling the pathogenesis of altitude polyglobulia] Hungarian.
    L. Kiss.
    Orvosi hetilap, Budapest, June 15, 2008, 149 (24): 1147-1149.

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