Biography of Endre Hőgyes
Endre Hőgyes received his medical diploma in 1870 at the University of Pest, where he became a teacher. From 1875 he was a professor of pathophysiology and later of pharmacology. In 1890, he founded the Hungarian Pasteur Institute, becoming its first director. He was a prominent figure of the Hungarian scientific life in the 19th century, founding and heading several societies and editing different scientific publications. He is perhaps most famous for his contributions to the development of the vaccination against the Lyssa virus, the deadly agent causing rabies.
Even though he is best known for his advances in infectology, Hőgyes posessed a broad scientific interest having discovered the reflex, connecting the eye-muscles to the semicircular ear channels, the neuronal mechanisms of the associated movements of the eyes, the separate blood supply of the medulla and cortex of the kidney as well as the excreting function of the renal tubules.
Hőgyes’ diluting method
The original anti-rabies vaccination was developed by Pasteur who used a so-called „drying” technique. Hőgyes’ diluting method proved to be more effective than the original version, which is certified by the fact that it has only recently been succeeded by a newer method.
Pasteur’s technique applied an injection of previously dried and then emulsified spinal cord of infected animals. Hőgyes developed a technique in which he produced solutions with known viral count, by diluting samples extracted from the spinal cords. Then, he administered this vaccine in increasing concentrations resulting in immunity against the virus and considerably decreased mortality upon infection compared to the original method. Thanks to this, the diluting vaccination method of Hőgyes became widely used.
We thank dr Peter Hauser, Budapest, for information submitted.
- A vese vérkeringési viszonyairól. Budapest, 1873.
[Blood circulation of the kidney].
- Az associált szemmozgások idegmechanizmusáról. (1-3. Budapest, 1880–1885.
[Neural mechanism of associated eye movements].
- Jelentés a veszettségre vonatkozó vizsgálataim jelen állásáról.
[Report about the present state of my research in the field of rabies]
Orvosi Hetilap, Budapest, volume 30, 1886.
- Ueber Nystagmus und associierte Augenbewegungsversuche bei Hystero-Epileptischen.
Pester medizinisch-chirurgische Presse, 1886, 22: 765, 787, 807, 827.
Rotational nystagmus described. First publsihed in Magyar in Orvosi Hetilap, 1886, 30: 857, 889.
- Le virus rabique des chiens des rues dans ses passages de lapin à lapin.
Annales de l'Institut Pasteur, Paris, volume 2, 1888.
- Die experimentelle Basis der antirabischen Schutzimpfungen Pasteur's. Stuttgart, 1889.
- A veszettség gyógyításáról [About the treatment of Rabies]. Budapest, 1889.
- J. Sos:
[Hógyes as scientist, teacher, and educator.]
Orvosi Hetilap, February 24, 1957, 98 (7-8): 175-178.
- G. Regoly-Merei, B. Palatkas:
[New data on the life of Andre Hogyes.]
Orvosi Hetilap, April 26, 1959, 100 (17): 622-624.
- A. Mester, D. Kollár Jr.
[100 years of audiology in Hungary. An essay about the audiometer constructed by Endre Högyes]. Orvosi Hetilap, April 22, 1979, 120 (16): 970-971.
- A. Szállási:
[Centenary of the appointment of Endre Högyes to the University of Pest]
Orvosi Hetilap, October 30, 1983, 124 (44): 2691-2693.
- L. Kerekes:
[Endre Högyes, microbiologist. Centenary of the Hungarian "fix virus"]
Orvosi Hetilap, November 2, 1986, 127 (44): 2701-2704.
- Jeremy M. Norman, editor:
Morton’s Medical Bibliography. An annotated Check-list of Texts Illustrating the History of Medicine (Garrison and Morton).
Fifth edition. Scolar Press, 1991.
- Dénes Karasszon:
The role and importance of Endre Hőgyes in the histgory of the Hungarian microbiology.
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, 1997, 44 (4): 367-372.
- E. Monos and M. Fargo:
[150 years from the birth of Endre Hogyes, promotor of Hungarian medicine.]
Hippokrates, Helsinki, 1998, 15: 126-129. Article in Finnish.