- A dictionary of medical eponyms

Friedrich Arnold

Born  1803-01-08
Died  1890-07-05

Related eponyms

German anatomist, born January 8, 1803, Edenkoben at Landau in the Rheinpfalz; died July 5, 1890, Heidelberg.

Biography of Friedrich Arnold

Friedrich Arnold was privy counsellor and professor emeritus of anatomy and physiology at Heidelberg. He studied medicine at the University of Heidelberg with his elder brother Johann Wilhelm Arnold (1801-1873). His anatomy-teachers were Friedrich Tiedemann (1781-1861) and Formann. He was conferred doctor of medicine on September 7, 1825.

In 1826 Arnold visited the institutions of natural sciences and medicine in Paris with his brother, and in the autumn that year was called to Heidelberg as professor at the anatomical institution of that town. In 1834 he was appointed extraordinary professor at the faculty of medicine in Heidelberg, and in 1835 accepted an invitation to become professor at and director of the institute of anatomy at the University of Zurich, where he stayed for five years.

All of Arnolds early works in anatomy and physiology concerned the microanatomy of the nervous system, but his long list of publications include a variety of themes. Of special importance is his textbook Lehrbuch der Physiologie der menschen, published with his brother. His illustrated works, of which the first was Icones nervorum capitis, are unique in German medical literature for their artistic merits.

In the spring of 1840 Arnold entered the chair of anatomy and physiology at the University of Freiburg im Breisgau, where he continued his research and began publishing his Handbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, ... At easter time 1845, after repeated invitations, he accepted the chair of anatomy and physiology at Tübingen, and in the autumn of 1852 assumed the same chair at the University of Heidelberg. Here, in 1873, he completed his career where it hand begun.

In volume one of his textbook of physiology is recorded work that he commenced as early as in 1832. This work is of particular importance because it is the basis for Rudolf Arndt's (1835-1900) theories on the build and development of the histological element of the animal body.

Arnold was a popular teacher, a man of vivid appearance and a deep concern for the welfare of his students.


  • Diss. inaug. sistens observationes nonnullas neurologicas de parte cephalica nervi sympathici in homine.
    Doctoral dissertation, Heidelberg 1826.
  • Beschreibung des Koptheiles des sympathischen Nerven beim Kalbe, nebst einigen Beobachtungen über diesen Theil bei Menschen.
    [Tiedemann and Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus] Zeitsschrift für Physiologie, Heidelberg, 1826.
  • Ueber den Ohrknoten, eine anatomisch-physiologische Abhandlung. Heidelberg, 1828.
  • Der Kopftheil des vegetativen Nervensystems beim Menschen in anatomischer und physiologischer Hinsicht.
    Heidelberg, Groos, und Leipzig, 1831. 204 pages.
  • Anatomische und physiologische Untersuchungen über das Auge des menschen.
    Heidelberg and Leipzig, 1832,
  • Icones nervorum capitis.
    50 pages, 9 pl. (with outlines). Folio. Heidelbergae, sumtibus auctoris, 1834.
  • Die Erscheinungen und Gesetze des lebenden menschlichen Körpers im gesunden und kranken Zustande.
    Written with his brother, Johann Wilhelm Arnold. 2 volumes in 4. Zürich, Orell, Fussli und Compagnie, 1836-1837.
  • Lehrbuch der Physiologie des Menschen. 1836-1840. Zurich?
  • Annotationes anatomicae de velamentis cerebri et medullae spinalis.
    Turici, 1838.
  • Untersuchungen im Gebiete der Anatomie und Physiologie, mit besonderer Hinsicht auf seine anatomischen Tafeln.
    1. Bändchen.
  • Annotationes Anatomicae de Velementis Cerebri et Medullae spinalis.
    Rede anläßlich einer Aula. Turici, Impensis Orelii, Fuesslini et sociorum, MDCCCXXXVIII.
  • Bemerkungen über den Bau des Hirns und Rückenmarks, nebst Beiträgen zur Physiologie des 10. und 11. Hirnnerven, mehreren kritischen Mittheilungen, sowie verschiedenen pathologischen und anatomischen Beobachtungen. Zurich, 1838.
  • Tabulae anatomicae, quas ad naturam accurate descriptas in lucem edidit.
    Fasc. I, II, IV, Turici, 1838-1843. Also under the title of:
    Abbildungen der Gelenke und Bänder des menschlichen Körpers. Zurich 1843.
  • Handbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf Physiologie und praktische Medizin.
    3 volumes, Freiburg 1843-1851.
  • Zur Physiologie der Galle. Denkschrift zur 50jähr. Jubelfeier des Dr. Friedr. Tiedemann im Namen der med. Facultät der Universität Heidelberg verfasst.
    Heidelberg 1854.
  • Ueber die Athmungsgrösse der menschen. Ein Beitrag zur Physiologie und zur Diagnostik der Krankheiten der Athmungswerkzeuge.
    Heidelberg 1855.
  • Die physiologishe Anstalt der Universität Heidelberg von 1853-1858.
    Heidelberg 1858.

What is an eponym?

An eponym is a word derived from the name of a person, whether real or fictional. A medical eponym is thus any word related to medicine, whose name is derived from a person.

What is Whonamedit?

Whonamedit.com is a biographical dictionary of medical eponyms. It is our ambition to present a complete survey of all medical phenomena named for a person, with a biography of that person.


Whonamedit? does not give medical advice.
This survey of medical eponyms and the persons behind them is meant as a general interest site only. No information found here must under any circumstances be used for medical purposes, diagnostically, therapeutically or otherwise. If you, or anybody close to you, is affected, or believe to be affected, by any condition mentioned here: see a doctor.