Biography of Karl Leiner
Karl Leiner was educated in Prague and Vienna, graduating in Vienna in 1896. He worked in the skin clinic as well as the pathological institute at Vienna, where he became assistant at the Karolinen-Kinderspital, then headed by Wilhelm Knöpfelmacher (born 1866). He was habilitated for paediatrics in 1912, becoming titular professor 1922, and from 1920 was director of the Mautner-Markhof Kinderspital der Stadt Wien.
Leiner took a special interest in infectious diseases of children, and was the first to use an intracutaneous technique for the vaccination of smallpox and was the first to recognise its relationship to post-vaccinal encephalitis. He investigated poliomyelitis and other viruses and bacteria at the Weichselbaum Institute. He combined the skills of a consultant physician with that of a laboratory worker and scientific investigator.