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Leopold Schrötter Ritter von Kristelli

Born  1837
Died  1908

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Austrian internist and laryngologist, born February 5, 1837, Graz; died April 22, 1908, Vienna. The common form of the name is Leopold von Schrötter. The name is also given as Leopold Schroetter Ritter von Kristelli.

Biography of Leopold Schrötter Ritter von Kristelli

Leopold Schrötter Ritter von Kristelli was the son of the famous chemist Anton von Schrötter, who in 1845 discovered amorphous, or red, phosphorus, which led to the safety match. He studied at Vienna and received his doctorate at that university in 1861. He was subsequently for two years apprentice in surgery under Schuh, then assistant under Josef Škoda (1805-1881). Already at this time he concerned himself with laryngoscopy and the study of diseases of the heart and chest, giving lectures on diseases of the chest under consideration of laryngology. He was habilitated as Privatdozent for laryngology in 1869.

Following the death of Ludwig Türck (1810-1868) he was appointed to the first chair in laryngology at the newly established clinic for laryngology, and from 1871 to he 1873 published the annual reports of his clinic. In 1875 he became professor extraordinary for diseases of the throat and chest, and from 1877 to 1881 headed the department of internal medicine in the Rudolfsspital. In 1881 he became primary physician (Primararzt) in the Wien allgemeines Krankenhaus, and soon afterward received the venia legendi for the entire field of internal medicine. In 1888 he was called zum Consilium to San Remo, to the sickbed of the German crown prince. Schrötter in 1890 was appointed full professor and head of the 3rd. medical clinic, and in 1896 he became Hofrat. He was a member of several learned societies.

Schrötter occasioned the establishment of special health institutions for people with diseases of the chest, a demand for which he had set forth in his paper Das kranke Krankenhaus – The Sick Hospital, in 1883. The large institution Alland owes its foundation to Schrötter. Schrötter also arranged for holiday resorts for poor Gymnasiasten (high school pupils) and a hospital for poor students. He designed the first modern equipped lecture room (Hörsaal), with a laboratory to match it.

His son, Hermann Schroetter-Kristelli (1870-1928) worked in a wide field of medical scientific topics. In 1894 he designed an oxygen mask with which the meteorologist Artur Berson (1859-1942) set an altitude record of 9150 m (30,000 ft).

Schrötter published on diseases of the heart in Hugo Wilhelm von Ziemssen (1829-1902), et al: Ziemssen’s Handbuch der speciellen Pathologie und Therapie (17 volumes, Leipzig, 1875-1885), later published by Carl Wilhelm Hermann Nothnagel (1841-1905), and on syphilis of the larynx in Maximillian Zeissl's ( (1853-1925) Handbuch.


  • Die Temperaturverhältnisse der croupösen Pneumonie. Medizinische Jahrbücher, Wien, 25-30.
  • Beitrag zur Behandlung der Larynxstenosen. Vienna, 1876.
  • Wirkung verschiedener Herzmittel.
    Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademie der Wissenschaften.
  • Vorlesungen über die Krankheiten des Kehlkopfes, der Luftröhre, der Nase und des Rachens. I. Band: Krankheiten des Kehlkopfes. Wien, Braumüller, and Leipzig, 1892. New edition 1896,
  • Das kranke Krankenhaus, Skizzen über die sanitären Verhältnisse Wiens. Paper.
  • Erkrankungen des Herzbeutels.
    In Nothnagel’s Handbuch der speciellen Pathologie und Therapie. Volume 15, part 2; 1894.
  • Erkrankungen der Gefässe.
    Nothnagel’s Handbuch der speciellen Pathologie und Therapie, 1901. Volume XV, II. Theil, II. Hälfte: Erkrankungen der Venen. Wien, Hölder, 1899: 533–535.
  • Zur Kenntniss der Decompressionserkrankungen.
  • E. Frank:
    Hofrat Professor Dr. Leopold Schrötter Ritter v. Kristelli. Zum 70. Geburtstage.
    Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 1907, 54: 271–272.
  • M. Grossmann:
    Leopold v. Schrötter.
    Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift, Berlin, 1908, 34: 930–931.
    Also in Monatsschrift für Ohrenheilkunde, 1907, 41: 1-8, and 1908, 42, 5. heft.

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